Categories
BLOG

cannabis cause gallstones

Gallbladder Cancer

Updated on July 13, 2020. Medical content reviewed by Dr. Joseph Rosado, MD, M.B.A, Chief Medical Officer

Gallbladder cancer and the treatments for it can leave you feeling fatigued, weak and nauseous. Medical marijuana for gallbladder cancer can help tackle many of the symptoms associated with this type of cancerand its treatment side effects.

What Is Gallbladder Cancer?

Gallbladder cancer originates in your gallbladder, a small, pear-shaped organ just beneath your liver, located on the right side of your abdomen. It stores bile, a digestive fluid your liver produces.

Gallbladder cancer is rare, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. When doctors identify it in its earlier stages, it increases your chance of being cured. When doctors discover the cancer in its later stages, it can lead to a poor prognosis.

Your risk factors for this cancer increase if you’re female or of Native American ancestry.

Gallbladder cancer is hard to identify and diagnose, since it rarely causes any specific symptoms or signs, especially in its early stages. Also, the gallbladder’s relatively hidden nature makes it harder for doctors to catch the cancer, and it often grows undetected.

Symptoms of Gallbladder Cancer

Unfortunately, symptoms of gallbladder cancer often don’t manifest until the disease has progressed considerably. However, there have been cases where the warning signs turn up sooner, allowing for an early diagnosis. Some common symptoms of gallbladder cancer include:

Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is common with gallbladder cancer, which may or may not lead to vomiting.

Abdominal Pain

You can experience abdominal pain with this cancer. The pain is usually in the upper right section of the stomach.

Lumps in the Stomach

Your gallbladder may swell to an abnormal size if your cancer blocks your bile ducts. The cancer may also spread to surrounding areas of your liver. Doctors can sometimes feel these as lumps or detect them through ultrasound imaging tests.

Jaundice

Jaundice is where your skin and white part of your eyes become a yellowish color. If your cancer begins growing big enough where it is blocking your bile ducts, liver bile can’t drain from your intestines. This leads to a chemical known as bilirubin, which causes the yellow color of your skin and in the whites of your eyes. Bilirubin builds up in your blood and settles in various parts of your body.

Other less common gallbladder cancer symptoms include:

  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Itchy skin
  • Fever
  • Swelling in your abdomen
  • Dark urine
  • Greasy or light-colored stools

As mentioned earlier, gallbladder cancer is fairly rare. In many cases, something other than the cancer itself is causing the symptoms. For instance, people also have many of the above symptoms with gallstones, and abdominal pain is a symptom of many conditions. Jaundice is a common cause of viral hepatitis. Even so, see your doctor right away if you’re experiencing these symptoms so you can receive a proper diagnosis.

History of Gallbladder Cancer

Because many people with gallbladder cancer present in its advanced stages, to this day, it’s linked with a poor prognosis. Its five-year survival rate is less than 10 percent in Stage III, according to the American Cancer Society, and 4 percent or less in stage IV.

Surgeons must completely remove the gallbladder for an effective treatment. Many incidental gallbladder cancer patients at re-exploration will have residual disease.

Management of patients with gallbladder cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach and a skilled surgeon’s input.

Types of Gallbladder Cancer

Adenocarcinomas make up around nine out of 10 gallbladder cancers. Adenocarcinomas begin in cells with gland-like properties which line most external and internal body surfaces, including the inside of the digestive system.

Papillary adenocarcinoma is a type of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. The cells in this kind of cancer, when viewed under a microscope, are organized in finger-like projections. They aren’t as likely to grow into nearby lymph nodes or your liver. Their prognosis is better than many types of gallbladder adenocarcinomas. They make up around 6 percent of gallbladder cancers.

Squamous cell carcinomas, adenosquamous carcinomas, sarcomas, small cell carcinomas and other types of cancer can develop in your gallbladder, although they’re not highly prevalent.

Effects of Gallbladder Cancer

Carcinoma of the gallbladder is especially deadly, as indicated by the survival rates discussed above. Since anatomically, the gallbladder doesn’t have a serosa tissue membrane to keep cancer from spreading, and the symptoms are vague, doctors tend to diagnose cancer in more advanced stages, usually with an abysmal prognosis.

If you’re genetically predisposed to gallbladder cancer and your gallbladder has had chronic inflammation for more than 15 years, you’re at a higher risk of malignant transformation.

Like some patients with gallbladder cancer, you may experience depression, anxiety and other psychological stresses, which can impact your digestion, immune system, concentration and sleep.

Mind-body medicine therapy could help reduce your nausea, sleep problems, pain and other side effects to help you cope better during your treatment for your cancer. Mind-body medicine is an integral part of your “whole-person” care. It realizes the powerful ways mental, emotional, behavioral and social factors can affect your physical health directly.

Marijuana for gallbladder cancer is another type of mind-body therapy you may benefit from and can also relieve side effects of your disease and/or treatment. We’ll discuss this in further detail momentarily.

Gallbladder Cancer Statistics

Statistics about gallbladder cancer, according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information, are:

  • There’s a less than 5 percent five-year survival rate for more advanced stages.
  • Adenocarcinomas make up more than 80 percent of all gallbladder cancer cases.
  • Gallbladder cancer, in the U.S., accounts for only 0.5 percent of all gastrointestinal malignancies, and fewer than 5,000 cases each year.

Current Treatments Available for Gallbladder Cancer and Their Side Effects

Several factors determine the treatment you receive, including how advanced your cancer is, your preferences, possible side effects and overall health. Your medical care plan might also include therapy for side effects and symptoms, an integral part of cancer care. Consult with your doctor to learn all your treatment options.

Surgery

During surgery, your surgeon removes the tumor and some of the surrounding healthy tissue.

Three types of surgery to treat gallbladder cancer include:

  1. Cholecystectomy: Removal of your gallbladder.
  2. Radical gallbladder resection: Your doctor may recommend this surgery even if you’ve already had a cholecystectomy. This procedure entails removal of your gallbladder, the common bile duct, the wedge-shaped part of your liver close to your gallbladder, the lymph nodes surrounding your pancreas, part or all of the ligaments between your intestines and liver and nearby blood vessels.
  3. Palliative surgery: Surgery to relieve your symptoms, not cure the cancer.

Any side effects you experience depend on what type of surgery you had. However, typical side effects include:

  • Fatigue
  • Pain
  • Bleeding
  • Appetite loss
  • Numbness
  • Drainage, swelling or bruising around the surgery site

Radiation Therapy

With radiation therapy, the doctor uses high-energy X-rays to destroy cancer cells. The most common type of radiotherapy for gallbladder cancer is external-beam radiation therapy. A machine gives you therapy outside your body with this type of radiation.

Your surgeon may give you radiation therapy before surgery to shrink your tumor. They may also give you radiation therapy after you’ve already had surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells.

Side effects of radiotherapy may include:

  • Mild skin reactions
  • Fatigue
  • Loss bowel movements
  • Upset stomach
  • Damage to intestines, liver or other nearby structures

Most side effects disappear after concluding your treatment.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses medications to destroy cancer cells, typically by stopping the cancer cells from growing and dividing. You may receive one medication at a time or a combination of several drugs given simultaneously.

You may receive chemotherapy intravenously by injection or orally by swallowing a capsule or pill. Your doctor may give you chemo before your surgery to shrink your tumor or after you’ve had surgery to destroy any leftover cancer cells. Your oncology team may also combine chemo with radiation therapy.

Common chemo drugs include:

  • Platinol
  • Gemzar
  • 5-FU
  • Eloxatin

Side effects of chemo depend on the dose used, but typically include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Risk of infection
  • Fatigue
  • Hair loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite

Side effects usually go away after you finish treatment.

Clinical Trials

If your cancer recurs or continues to grow despite treatment, newer treatments might help keep it under control. Ask your oncologist if there are any clinical trials for gallbladder cancer you can participate in.

How and Why Marijuana Can Be an Effective Treatment for the Side Effects of Gallbladder Cancer and Its Treatment

Patients often add marijuana to their cancer regimens in several ways. Some patients use medical cannabis for gallbladder cancer to manage symptoms such as pain, nausea and vomiting. Many already know of the antiemetic properties of marijuana. Even those who aren’t quite sure yet if medical cannabis is right for them acknowledge the benefits it produces as far as nausea relief and appetite stimulation for cancer patients.

Others use an energizing marijuana strain to fight fatigue. Some cancer sufferers use it to lift their moods during this trying time in their lives. Even nurses working with hospice and palliative care patients realize the quality-of-life benefits medical weed provides to individuals who are experiencing the painful effects they get from their cancer treatment.

Still others consume highly concentrated medical marijuana oil and raw cannabis juice in an attempt to use a natural remedy to treat their disease. University of Anglia researchers found THC reduced tumor growth in patients with cancer in 2014. THC is the main psychoactive in marijuana. The research team induced tumors in mice using samples of human breast cancer.

Researchers then began targeting the tumors with cannabis doses high in THC. They found two cell receptors were particularly responsible for the anti-tumor effects of the drug.

What Side Effects and Symptoms of Gallbladder Cancer Can Medical Marijuana Treat?

Doctors already prescribe marijuana-like pharmaceuticals to help treat chemo side effects. There are two specific synthetic cannabinoids modeled after THC — nabilone and dronabinol — approved for reducing chemo-induced vomiting and nausea.

Many patients with gallbladder cancer experience symptoms such as:

  • Insomnia
  • Other sleep problems
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Pain
  • Vomiting
  • Inflammation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Troubles with concentration
  • Anxiety
  • Depression

Mostly, these symptoms have a connection with chemotherapy treatment used to treat gallbladder cancer. In fact, according to San Francisco General Hospital Chief Dr. Donald Abrams, every day cancer patients experience vomiting, nausea, pain, loss of appetite, insomnia and depression. To him, medical cannabis is the only anti-nausea drug able to increase your appetite.

Abrams says medical weed also helps elevate his patients’ mood and helps them sleep — not an easy feat when you’re dealing with a life-threatening illness. He says he could just as well prescribe six different prescriptions which would likely interact with chemo or each other. But instead, he’d rather just recommend trying just one medication.

Best Strains of Marijuana to Use for Gallbladder Cancer Symptoms and Side Effects

Every strain has a distinct profile — and different strains are effective for different patients. When you’re battling gallbladder cancer, you’ll need a potent medical cannabis for gallbladder strain by your side. Here are some suggestions.

Pain-Fighting Strains

Strains containing high levels of CBD and THC are typically the best at fighting pain because of their synergistic effects. However, you can still benefit from either one of these cannabinoids.

Strains may include:

  • ACDC (hybrid)
  • Blackberry Kush (Indica)
  • Harlequin (Sativa)

Strains to Tackle Nausea and Vomiting

Strains consisting of at least some level of THC typically deliver anti-nausea effects. You’ll experience the most effects when you vape or smoke the herb.

Strains may include:

  • Blueberry Diesel (hybrid)
  • Northern Lights (Indica)
  • Super Lemon Haze (Sativa)

Strains to Help With Lack of Appetite

When you’re dealing with a loss of appetite, high-THC strains are the way to go. These are usually indica strains.

Strains may include:

  • Skywalker OG (hybrid)
  • Granddaddy Purple (Indica)
  • Bubba Kush (Indica)

Treating Depression With Cannabis

When you’re struggling with depression, mood and energy-boosting strains can be the most effective.

Strains may include:

  • Super Silver Haze (Sativa)
  • Pennywise (Indica)
  • Chernobyl (hybrid)

Fight Fatigue With Marijuana

Sativa strains help to eliminate fatigue because of their energetic and rejuvenating buzz. However, hybrids can help as well.

Strains may include:

  • Pineapple Express (hybrid)
  • Strawberry Cough (Sativa)
  • Chocolope (Sativa)

To find a strain to help a specific symptom, you can work with your budtender at your dispensary.

Best Methods of Marijuana Treatment for the Side Effects of Gallbladder Cancer

You may have concerns revolving around smoking your cannabis and gallbladder cancer treatment. No matter what materials you’re smoking, it can produce carcinogens. These are not helpful at all for patients who already have suppressed immune systems due to chemotherapy. But marijuana might not be as carcinogenic as tobacco.

If you’re looking to use marijuana and gallbladder cancer therapy, you may want to try other forms of consumption, such as vaporization, edibles, transdermal patches, suppositories or medical cannabis oil. Whichever is your preferred method to take the medicinal herb, you’ll still first need to search for a medical marijuana dispensary or doctor before you can begin your cannabis treatment.

See how medical marijuana could help relieve your gallbladder cancer symptoms. Find patient reviews on local doctors and information on treatment options.

Marijuana linked to ‘unbearable’ sickness across US as use grows following legalisation

‘The pain was unbearable, like somebody was wringing out my stomach like a washcloth’

Article bookmarked

Find your bookmarks in your Independent Premium section, under my profile

By the time Thomas Hodorowski made the connection between his marijuana habit and the bouts of pain and vomiting that left him incapacitated every few weeks, he had been to the emergency room dozens of times, tried anti-nausea drugs, anti-anxiety medications and antidepressants, endured an upper endoscopy procedure and two colonoscopies, seen a psychiatrist and had his appendix and gallbladder removed.

The only way to get relief for the nausea and pain was to take a hot shower.

He often stayed in the shower for hours at a time. When the hot water ran out, “the pain was unbearable, like somebody was wringing my stomach out like a washcloth”, said Hodorowski, 28, a production and shipping assistant who lives outside Chicago.

Read more

It was nearly 10 years before a doctor finally convinced him that the diagnosis was cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, a condition that causes cyclic vomiting in heavy marijuana users and can be cured by quitting marijuana.

Until recently the syndrome was thought to be uncommon or even rare. But as marijuana use has increased, emergency room physicians say they have seen a steady flow of patients with the telltale symptoms, especially in states where marijuana has been decriminalised and patients are more likely to divulge their drug use to physicians.

“After marijuana was legalised in Colorado, we had a doubling in the number of cases of cyclic vomiting syndrome we saw,” many probably related to marijuana use, said Dr Cecilia J Sorensen, an emergency room doctor at University of Colorado Hospital at the Anschutz medical campus in Aurora, who has studied the syndrome.

Dr Eric Lavonas, director of emergency medicine at Denver Health and a spokesman for the American College of Emergency Physicians, said, “CHS went from being something we didn’t know about and never talked about to a very common problem over the last five years.”

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

1 /26 In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

A man wears a marijuana leaf mask during the annual 4/20 cannabis culture celebration at Sunset Beach in Vancouver, British Columbia

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

A lady smokes marijuana on Parliament Hill on 4/20 in Ottawa, Ontario

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

James Reed smokes a joint during the Denver 420 Rally at Civic Center Park in Denver, Colorado

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

People sign a 4/20 sign on Parliament Hill on in Ottawa, Ontario

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

A woman smokes marijuana on Parliament Hill on 4/20 in Ottawa, Ontario. Polling released showed strong support in Canada for a government drive to legalise recreational use of marijuana, but many would like the proposed minimum age for consumption to be raised. Sixty-three percent of respondents told the Angus Reid Institute they support legalisation

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

A man smokes marijuana during the annual 4/20 marijuana rally on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Demonstrators smoke marijuana during the ‘4/20 Santiago’ rally in favour of legalisation in front of the La Moneda presidential palace in Santiago, as part of the Global Marijuana March which is being held in hundreds of cities worldwide

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

People play with a mock marijuana joint during a 4/20 party to demand legalisation and to celebrate marijuana culture outside the Senate building in Mexico City, Mexico

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Adam Eidinger, co-founder of DCMJ, hands out free marijuana joints to DC residents who worked on Capitol Hill as part of the 1st Annual Joint Session to mark ‘4/20’ day and promote legalising marijuana on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Police arrest Rachel Ramone Donlan after she handed out free marijuana joints to DC residents who worked on Capitol Hill as part of the 1st Annual Joint Session to mark ‘4/20’ day and promote legalising marijuana on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Police arrest Rachel Ramone Donlan after she handed out free marijuana joints to DC residents who worked on Capitol Hill as part of the 1st Annual Joint Session to mark ‘4/20’ day and promote legalising marijuana on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Thousands of people gather to smoke marijuana during the ‘420 Santiago’rally in front of the La Moneda presidential palace in Santiago

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

People attend the Denver 420 Rally at Civic Center Park in Denver, Colorado

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Kevin Barron and Lasean Moore of Raleigh, North Carolina, share a joint during the Denver 420 Rally at Civic Center Park in Denver, Colorado

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Nic Ruhl takes a pull on a giant hand rolled joint at precisely 4:20pm MDT during the Denver 420 Rally at Civic Center Park in Denver, Colorado

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Various cannabis paraphernalia on display at a vendor’s stall during the Denver 420 Rally at Civic Center Park in Denver, Colorado

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Mo Banez, of Austin, Texas, lights a joint during the Denver 420 Rally at Civic Center Park in Denver, Colorado

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

A man displays a large container of cannabis during the Denver 420 Rally at Civic Center Park in Denver, Colorado. The rally, held annually, is a celebration of both the legalisation of cannabis and cannabis culture. Colorado is one of twenty-six U.S. states along with the District of Columbia that has legalised the use of cannabis either recreationally or medically

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Sitting in small groups on mats shaded by trees in the Rose Garden just across from the Knesset, participants lit up as the clock struck 4:20 for the local version of the traditional worldwide April 20 pro-marijuana events, known as ‘420’ rallies

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

An Israeli smokes a marijuana joint in Jerusalem during a rally at the Rose garden

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

Sitting in small groups on mats shaded by trees in the Rose Garden just across from the Knesset, participants lit up as the clock struck 4:20 for the local version of the traditional worldwide April 20 pro-marijuana events, known as ‘420’ rallies

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

An Israeli girl poses with a mock marijuana joint in Jerusalem during a rally at the Rose garden, to celebrate 420 and to express their defiance of current laws

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

aelis pass around a marijuana joint in Jerusalem during a rally at the Rose garden, to celebrate 420 and to express their defiance of current laws

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

An Israeli smokes a marijuana joint in Jerusalem during a rally at the Rose garden, to celebrate 420 and to express their defiance of current law

In pictures: 4/20 Marijuana world rallies

An Israeli smokes a marijuana joint in Jerusalem on April 20, 2017 during a rally opposite the Knesset to celebrate 420 and express defiance of current laws

Now a new study, based on interviews with 2,127 adult emergency room patients under 50 at Bellevue, a large public hospital in New York City, found that of the 155 patients who said they smoked marijuana at least 20 days a month, 51 heavy users said they had during the past six months experienced nausea and vomiting that were specifically relieved by hot showers.

Extrapolating from those findings, the authors estimated that up to 2.7 million of the 8.3 million Americans known to smoke marijuana daily or near daily may suffer from at least occasional bouts of CHS.

“The big news is that it’s not a couple of thousand people who are affected — it’s a couple of million people,” said Dr Joseph Habboushe, an assistant professor of emergency medicine at NYU Langone/Bellevue Medical Centre and lead author of the new paper, published in Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology.

Others questioned the one-in-three figure, however. Paul Armentano, the deputy director for the National Organisation for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), said that even with more widespread use of marijuana, “this phenomenon is comparatively rare and seldom is reported” and strikes only “a small percentage of people”.

Read more

And several physicians who routinely prescribe medicinal marijuana for conditions ranging from chronic pain to epilepsy said they have not seen the cyclic vomiting syndrome in their patients, but noted that they typically prescribe compounds that are not designed to produce a high and contain very low amounts of the psychoactive ingredient THC.

Habboushe said doctors in other parts of the country may be unfamiliar with CHS or mistake it for a psychiatric or anxiety-related syndrome. And even if they are aware of it, many regard it as a “rare, kind of funny disease”, replete with anecdotes of patients who spend hours in the shower.

But the condition can be quite serious. A 33-year-old veteran who asked not to be identified described bouts of up to 12 hours in which he felt “like a puffer fish with sharp spikes was inflating and driving spikes into my spine from both sides. I’ve broken bones, and this blew it out of the water.”

Habboushe said, “I know patients who have lost their jobs, gone bankrupt from repeatedly seeking medical care, and have been misdiagnosed for years.”

“Marijuana is probably safer than a lot of other things out there, but the discussion about it has been so politicised and the focus has been on the potential benefits, without looking rigorously at what the potential downside might be,” he said. “No medication is free from side effects.”

Patients often arrive at the hospital severely dehydrated from the combination of hot showers and the inability to keep food or liquids down, and that can lead to acute kidney injury, said Habboushe.

But since many patients develop the syndrome only after many years of smoking pot, they don’t make the connection with their pot habit and have a hard time accepting the diagnosis.

The confusion is understandable, Sorensen said. “Marijuana is viewed as medicinal, and it’s given to people with cancer and Aids. People know it’s used to help with nausea and stimulate the appetite, so it’s difficult to get patients to accept that it may be causing their nausea and vomiting.”

It’s unclear why marijuana can produce such discordant effects in some users. Sorensen often tells patients that it’s similar to developing an allergy to a favourite food.

World news in pictures

1 /50 World news in pictures

World news in pictures

30 September 2020

Pope Francis prays with priests at the end of a limited public audience at the San Damaso courtyard in The Vatican

World news in pictures

29 September 2020

A girl’s silhouette is seen from behind a fabric in a tent along a beach by Beit Lahia in the northern Gaza Strip

World news in pictures

28 September 2020

A Chinese woman takes a photo of herself in front of a flower display dedicated to frontline health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Beijing, China. China will celebrate national day marking the founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1st

World news in pictures

27 September 2020

The Glass Mountain Inn burns as the Glass Fire moves through the area in St. Helena, California. The fast moving Glass fire has burned over 1,000 acres and has destroyed homes

World news in pictures

26 September 2020

A villager along with a child offers prayers next to a carcass of a wild elephant that officials say was electrocuted in Rani Reserve Forest on the outskirts of Guwahati, India

World news in pictures

25 September 2020

The casket of late Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg is seen in Statuary Hall in the US Capitol to lie in state in Washington, DC

World news in pictures

24 September 2020

An anti-government protester holds up an image of a pro-democracy commemorative plaque at a rally outside Thailand’s parliament in Bangkok, as activists gathered to demand a new constitution

World news in pictures

23 September 2020

A whale stranded on a beach in Macquarie Harbour on the rugged west coast of Tasmania, as hundreds of pilot whales have died in a mass stranding in southern Australia despite efforts to save them, with rescuers racing to free a few dozen survivors

The Mercury/AFP via Getty

World news in pictures

22 September 2020

State civil employee candidates wearing face masks and shields take a test in Surabaya

World news in pictures

21 September 2020

A man sweeps at the Taj Mahal monument on the day of its reopening after being closed for more than six months due to the coronavirus pandemic

World news in pictures

20 September 2020

A deer looks for food in a burnt area, caused by the Bobcat fire, in Pearblossom, California

World news in pictures

19 September 2020

Anti-government protesters hold their mobile phones aloft as they take part in a pro-democracy rally in Bangkok. Tens of thousands of pro-democracy protesters massed close to Thailand’s royal palace, in a huge rally calling for PM Prayut Chan-O-Cha to step down and demanding reforms to the monarchy

World news in pictures

18 September 2020

Supporters of Iraqi Shi’ite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr maintain social distancing as they attend Friday prayers after the coronavirus disease restrictions were eased, in Kufa mosque, near Najaf, Iraq

World news in pictures

17 September 2020

A protester climbs on The Triumph of the Republic at ‘the Place de la Nation’ as thousands of protesters take part in a demonstration during a national day strike called by labor unions asking for better salary and against jobs cut in Paris, France

World news in pictures

16 September 2020

A fire raging near the Lazzaretto of Ancona in Italy. The huge blaze broke out overnight at the port of Ancona. Firefighters have brought the fire under control but they expected to keep working through the day

World news in pictures

15 September 2020

Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny posing for a selfie with his family at Berlin’s Charite hospital. In an Instagram post he said he could now breathe independently following his suspected poisoning last month

World news in pictures

14 September 2020

Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga, former Defense Minister Shigeru Ishiba and former Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida celebrate after Suga was elected as new head of the ruling party at the Liberal Democratic Party’s leadership election in Tokyo

World news in pictures

13 September 2020

A man stands behind a burning barricade during the fifth straight day of protests against police brutality in Bogota

World news in pictures

12 September 2020

Police officers block and detain protesters during an opposition rally to protest the official presidential election results in Minsk, Belarus. Daily protests calling for the authoritarian president’s resignation are now in their second month

World news in pictures

11 September 2020

Members of ‘Omnium Cultural’ celebrate the 20th ‘Festa per la llibertat’ (‘Fiesta for the freedom’) to mark the Day of Catalonia in Barcelona. Omnion Cultural fights for the independence of Catalonia

World news in pictures

10 September 2020

The Moria refugee camp, two days after Greece’s biggest migrant camp, was destroyed by fire. Thousands of asylum seekers on the island of Lesbos are now homeless

World news in pictures

9 September 2020

Pope Francis takes off his face mask as he arrives by car to hold a limited public audience at the San Damaso courtyard in The Vatican

World news in pictures

8 September 2020

A home is engulfed in flames during the “Creek Fire” in the Tollhouse area of California

World news in pictures

7 September 2020

A couple take photos along a sea wall of the waves brought by Typhoon Haishen in the eastern port city of Sokcho

World news in pictures

6 September 2020

Novak Djokovic and a tournament official tends to a linesperson who was struck with a ball by Djokovic during his match against Pablo Carreno Busta at the US Open

USA Today Sports/Reuters

World news in pictures

5 September 2020

Protesters confront police at the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, Australia, during an anti-lockdown rally

World news in pictures

4 September 2020

A woman looks on from a rooftop as rescue workers dig through the rubble of a damaged building in Beirut. A search began for possible survivors after a scanner detected a pulse one month after the mega-blast at the adjacent port

World news in pictures

3 September 2020

A full moon next to the Virgen del Panecillo statue in Quito, Ecuador

World news in pictures

2 September 2020

A Palestinian woman reacts as Israeli forces demolish her animal shed near Hebron in the Israeli-occupied West Bank

World news in pictures

1 September 2020

Students protest against presidential elections results in Minsk

TUT.BY/AFP via Getty

World news in pictures

31 August 2020

The pack rides during the 3rd stage of the Tour de France between Nice and Sisteron

World news in pictures

30 August 2020

Law enforcement officers block a street during a rally of opposition supporters protesting against presidential election results in Minsk, Belarus

World news in pictures

29 August 2020

A woman holding a placard reading “Stop Censorship – Yes to the Freedom of Expression” shouts in a megaphone during a protest against the mandatory wearing of face masks in Paris. Masks, which were already compulsory on public transport, in enclosed public spaces, and outdoors in Paris in certain high-congestion areas around tourist sites, were made mandatory outdoors citywide on August 28 to fight the rising coronavirus infections

World news in pictures

28 August 2020

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe bows to the national flag at the start of a press conference at the prime minister official residence in Tokyo. Abe announced he will resign over health problems, in a bombshell development that kicks off a leadership contest in the world’s third-largest economy

World news in pictures

27 August 2020

Residents take cover behind a tree trunk from rubber bullets fired by South African Police Service (SAPS) in Eldorado Park, near Johannesburg, during a protest by community members after a 16-year old boy was reported dead

World news in pictures

26 August 2020

People scatter rose petals on a statue of Mother Teresa marking her 110th birth anniversary in Ahmedabad

World news in pictures

25 August 2020

An aerial view shows beach-goers standing on salt formations in the Dead Sea near Ein Bokeq, Israel

World news in pictures

24 August 2020

Health workers use a fingertip pulse oximeter and check the body temperature of a fisherwoman inside the Dharavi slum during a door-to-door Covid-19 coronavirus screening in Mumbai

World news in pictures

23 August 2020

People carry an idol of the Hindu god Ganesh, the deity of prosperity, to immerse it off the coast of the Arabian sea during the Ganesh Chaturthi festival in Mumbai, India

World news in pictures

22 August 2020

Firefighters watch as flames from the LNU Lightning Complex fires approach a home in Napa County, California

World news in pictures

21 August 2020

Members of the Israeli security forces arrest a Palestinian demonstrator during a rally to protest against Israel’s plan to annex parts of the occupied West Bank

World news in pictures

20 August 2020

A man pushes his bicycle through a deserted road after prohibitory orders were imposed by district officials for a week to contain the spread of the Covid-19 in Kathmandu

World news in pictures

19 August 2020

A car burns while parked at a residence in Vacaville, California. Dozens of fires are burning out of control throughout Northern California as fire resources are spread thin

World news in pictures

18 August 2020

Students use their mobile phones as flashlights at an anti-government rally at Mahidol University in Nakhon Pathom. Thailand has seen near-daily protests in recent weeks by students demanding the resignation of Prime Minister Prayut Chan-O-Cha

World news in pictures

17 August 2020

Members of the Kayapo tribe block the BR163 highway during a protest outside Novo Progresso in Para state, Brazil. Indigenous protesters blocked a major transamazonian highway to protest against the lack of governmental support during the COVID-19 novel coronavirus pandemic and illegal deforestation in and around their territories

World news in pictures

16 August 2020

Lightning forks over the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge as a storm passes over Oakland

World news in pictures

15 August 2020

Belarus opposition supporters gather near the Pushkinskaya metro station where Alexander Taraikovsky, a 34-year-old protester died on August 10, during their protest rally in central Minsk

World news in pictures

14 August 2020

AlphaTauri’s driver Daniil Kvyat takes part in the second practice session at the Circuit de Catalunya in Montmelo near Barcelona ahead of the Spanish F1 Grand Prix

World news in pictures

13 August 2020

Soldiers of the Brazilian Armed Forces during a disinfection of the Christ The Redeemer statue at the Corcovado mountain prior to the opening of the touristic attraction in Rio

World news in pictures

12 August 2020

Young elephant bulls tussle playfully on World Elephant Day at the Amboseli National Park in Kenya

Getting the right diagnosis often takes a long time. The average patient makes seven trips to the emergency room, sees five doctors and is hospitalised four times before a definitive diagnosis is made, running up approximately $100,000 in medical bills, Sorensen’s study found.

“They get really expensive workups, lots of CT scans and sometimes exploratory surgery” to rule out dangerous conditions like appendicitis or a bowel obstruction, Sorensen said. “At the end of the day they’re told, ‘You’re smoking too much pot’.”

The symptoms of CHS often do not respond to drug treatment, though some physicians have had success with the antipsychotic haloperidol (sold under the brand name Haldol) and with capsaicin cream.

The good news is that CHS has a pretty simple cure: abstinence. The pain and vomiting episodes stop when patients quit smoking, experts say. If they start smoking again, they are likely to have a recurrence.

Hodorowski quit smoking once he accepted that marijuana was the cause of his problems, he said, adding that he was in denial for a long time. He’s telling his story so others can learn from his experience.

“I hope they’ll be honest with themselves so they don’t have to go through what I’ve been through,” he said. “I’m very lucky to have survived this.”

The New York Times

1 /1 Marjuana use linked to ‘unbearable’ sickness across US

Marjuana use linked to ‘unbearable’ sickness across US

‘The pain was unbearable, like somebody was wringing out my stomach like a washcloth’

No hype, just the advice and analysis you need

Already have an account? Log in here

Comments

Share your thoughts and debate the big issues

About The Independent commenting

Independent Premium Comments can be posted by members of our membership scheme, Independent Premium. It allows our most engaged readers to debate the big issues, share their own experiences, discuss real-world solutions, and more. Our journalists will try to respond by joining the threads when they can to create a true meeting of independent Premium. The most insightful comments on all subjects will be published daily in dedicated articles. You can also choose to be emailed when someone replies to your comment.

The existing Open Comments threads will continue to exist for those who do not subscribe to Independent Premium. Due to the sheer scale of this comment community, we are not able to give each post the same level of attention, but we have preserved this area in the interests of open debate. Please continue to respect all commenters and create constructive debates.

Delete Comment
Report Comment

Join the discussion.

Please be respectful when making a comment and adhere to our Community Guidelines.

  • You may not agree with our views, or other users’, but please respond to them respectfully
  • Swearing, personal abuse, racism, sexism, homophobia and other discriminatory or inciteful language is not acceptable
  • Do not impersonate other users or reveal private information about third parties
  • We reserve the right to delete inappropriate posts and ban offending users without notification

You can find our Community Guidelines in full here.

‘The pain was unbearable, like somebody was wringing out my stomach like a washcloth’ ]]>