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Specifically, the individual country surveys address the extent to which each country applies limits on the amounts that can be contributed to political parties and candidates, the existence of ceilings on campaign expenditures, and the availability of free airtime for broadcast advertising. Countries included in this study demonstrate different models used in regulating campaign financing. 2016) Regulation of Foreign Involvement in Elections. This report includes surveys of 13 major democratic foreign jurisdictions on laws and policies addressing foreign involvement in elections. Reports of foreign interference in recent elections in the United States and elsewhere have prompted responses in several countries.

For example, Australia, Canada, France, and South Africa have new laws in 2018 addressing political contributions, and most of the other countries surveyed in this report similarly have laws prohibiting foreign donations. Continuity of Legislative Activities during Emergency Situations. This report the law of 36 foreign jurisdictions and the United States on the functioning of legislatures under emergency measures, arrangements in legislatures for a designated sub-group to constitute a kind of “emergency parliament” with devolved powers from the whole legislature, and arrangements made by national legislative bodies to ensure their work during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the vast majority of countries surveyed, legislatures have adopted preventative measures in response to the public emergency posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, no country surveyed has explicitly invoked the powers of an “emergency parliament” with devolved power from the whole legislature. However, several countries surveyed give various other emergency powers to the legislature in times of emergencies. This report surveys laws and practices regarding feedback on customer satisfaction from users of government services. The jurisdictions selected provide an array of representative approaches to obtaining feedback regarding user satisfaction. Some countries have enacted laws requiring agencies to obtain information on customer satisfaction and incorporate such data into quality improvement efforts.

Many of the countries reviewed here have established programs for evaluating customer satisfaction of public services. Some countries have provided for large-scale, centralize surveying of customer satisfaction. Switzerland: Implementation of Article 126 of the Swiss Constitution – The “Debt Brake”. Article 126 of the Swiss Constitution codifies a fiscal rule for the federal government called “debt brake,” which is designed to finance expenditures through revenues instead of new debt. It was first applied in the federal budget of 2003. Details of the debt brake are implemented in articles 13 to 18 of the Financial Budget Act. Compliance is monitored by the Swiss Federal Audit Office. The European Union is tasked with establishing a Common European Asylum System. To that end, several legislative instruments have been adopted, including a directive on standards regarding reception conditions of applicants for asylum or subsidiary and temporary protection. For vulnerable persons, such as minors, there are special protections in place. Applicants have a right to receive necessary health care, which must at least include emergency care and essential treatment of illnesses and of serious mental disorders. 2019) Regulation and Funding of Alternative Maternity Care Providers. This report includes surveys of the regulation and funding of two types of alternative maternity care providers, midwives and doulas, in 10 countries around the world. All researched jurisdictions regulate the work of midwives, which is not the case when it comes to doula activities. Health care, which includes midwife services, is funded either by the government at the federal, provincial, territorial, or local level or by a national health insurance scheme. Doula services are not funded in the vast majority of the researched jurisdictions. (May 2019) Supply Chain Regulation of Pharmaceutical Samples. This research surveys several countries’ regulations regarding “serialization” of pharmaceutical products and whether these regulations apply to free medicinal product samples. The attached reports explore the specific “track and trace” or “serialization” laws and regulations in the European Union, Japan, and Turkey. While technical aspects of serialization differ across jurisdictions, one widely used benchmark for legislation is the voluntary GS1 standards, and specifically the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN). Globally, it is estimated that 70 countries have based their regulatory requirements for traceability of pharmaceuticals on these standards. Based on a comprehensive survey of citizenship and nationality laws of the countries of the world, this report presents information on the laws of those countries that allow acquisition of citizenship based on the fact of one’s birth in the territory of the country ( jus soli , or birthright citizenship). In theory, the jus soli rule of citizenship stands in sharp contrast to the jus sanguinis rule, which grants citizenship only if one or both parents hold citizenship.

In reality, the line between these approaches frequently blurs, as the various parent-based conditions for birthright citizenship illustrate. 2018) Criminalization of Illegal Entry Around the World.

On the basis of a worldwide survey, this report identifies 162 countries that have laws criminalizing or otherwise punishing illegal entry.

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