state Senator Tom Davis, a Beaufort Republican, would legalize marijuana (including THC, the psychoactive substance that gets you high) for medical use in the state for a number of medical conditions under strict guidelines. For example, even medical patients wouldn’t be allowed to smoke it, but would have to take it by other means, including edibles and vaping. Spang said he wants to carry medical marijuana products if they’re legalized, but doesn’t want to slack on CBD.
“Not everyone needs the high levels of THC,” he said. I think we need a medical marijuana program in the state without a doubt and I would be more than happy to extend our brand into that realm as well.” Common bile duct. The common bile duct (CBD ), which is sometimes simply known as the bile duct , is formed by the union of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CHD). On ultrasound imaging, it is not always possible to confidently see where the cystic duct enters the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Therefore it is common practice to use the term common duct ( CD ) as a term conflating the common hepatic and common bile ducts. The CBD is approximately 8 cm long and usually 2 : partially covered posteriorly (most common: 50%) completely covered completely uncovered CBD may pass laterally to the pancreatic head (least common) Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry. 1 Demonstrator, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine & Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata, India. 2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India.
Background : Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim : Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results : Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did not show any statistically significant correlation with any of the anthropometric measurements. Conclusion : Our study reported the upper limit of normality as 7.9 mm. The diameter increased progressively from 3.9 mm among those aged 18-25 years to 4.7 mm among those in the age group more than 55 years. Ductal diameters beyond these limits should prompt the need for further investigations. The size of the common bile duct is a predictor of biliary obstruction and it’s measurement is therefore an important component in the evaluation of the biliary system. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct would help to distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Ultrasonography is an accurate, safe, non-invasive and inexpensive imaging modality, which is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of many biliary tree diseases . Ultrasonography is comparable in accuracy to oral cholecystography, radionuclide studies, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and more cost-effective .
With the development of high resolution scanners, the luminal diameters of the common bile duct can be assessed accurately. The normal internal diameter of the common bile duct on ultrasonography is 6 mm . Different opinions regarding the size of the common bile duct have been revealed in literature. It is an established fact that variations exist in the anthropometric features of various populations, races and regions . Studies have suggested correlation between different kinds of body builds and diseases. However, despite technological advancements, the association of anthropometric measurements with the diameters of common bile duct has remained controversial. We conducted this study to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct among Rajasthani population in order to determine the range of normal diameters for common bile duct among this population and to determine its association with age, sex, physical measurements like height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at the transpyloric plane, circumference at the umbilicus and circumference at the hip. We conducted a cross-sectional hospital-based study at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur.
A total of 200 subjects, comprising an equal proportion of males and females were included in the study. The study included normal healthy adult male and non-pregnant female subjects visiting hospital OPD for regular check-up without any history of or known hepatobiliary disease, cardiac disorders, splenomegaly and portal hypertension. An informed consent was obtained from all the subjects prior to enrolment in the study.