7 Ways Cannabinoids Combat Endometriosis
When Foria first released its cannabinoid infused suppositories, the team was pleasantly surprised by the response from people who suffer from endometriosis.
The Foria team wasn’t surprised that these products worked for endometriosis pain — just how well they worked.
Though many folks are already familiar with the pain-relieving effects of CBD and THC, scientists have uncovered numerous ways that cannabis and hemp extracts could actually target the root causes of various conditions — including endometriosis.
Research indicates that cannabinoids could treat endometriosis by:
- Stopping cell proliferation
- Preventing cell migration
- Inhibiting lesion vascularization (blood vessels)
- Inhibiting lesion innervation (nerves)
- Blocking synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandins
- Modulating the immune response
- Desensitizing nerves that transmit pain
But which cannabinoids have which effects?
And should you be using THC only? CBD only? Or some combination?
Whether you’re already using cannabinoids for your endometriosis, or you’re considering an experiment with them, we highly recommend reading on to learn about the effects of THC & CBD on endometriosis.
If you’ve been diagnosed with endometriosis, then you’re probably already aware that there’s currently no cure. The treatments offered by doctors — including painkillers, hormone therapy, and risky surgical procedures — are aimed at merely holding the endometriosis in check. And they are often ineffective at that.
This is why many endometriosis sufferers are seeking holistic approaches to deal with their recurrent symptoms – through diet and other lifestyle changes – and incorporating cannabinoids (like CBD and THC) into their treatment routines.
What is Endometriosis?
Let’s start with a bit of background first. (If you’re already deeply familiar with endometriosis, feel free to skip ahead to the cannabinoid therapies section down the page.)
Endometriosis is a frequently painful condition where tissue similar to that which normally lines the uterus – the endometrium – mistakenly grows outside of the uterus. Endometrial tissue can develop on the ovaries, fallopian tubes and other abdominal locations.
Although there is nothing intrinsically life-threatening about this tissue, it unfortunately responds to the hormones circulating in your body the same way it does in your uterus: Every month the endometrium builds up, then breaks down and sheds.
Unlike typical menstruation, the blood and tissue shed from these misplaced cells are frequently trapped in your body. This cyclical pattern can become excruciating — triggering inflammation and scarring as your body struggles to reabsorb the dead material.
For people who suffer from endometriosis, life is significantly more challenging: As a group, their quality of life goes down while anxiety and depression rates increase . Many endure the pain of endometriosis for years before being properly diagnosed — and it can be devastating to continue to get worse even while following prescribed treatments.
People with endometriosis typically suffer from at least one of the following symptoms:
- Severe menstrual cramps
- Painful intercourse
- Painful urination or bowel movements
- Chronic lower back, abdominal or pelvic pain
- Diarrhea, constipation or nausea
- Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
How is Endometriosis Treated?
There is no known cure for endometriosis. Treatment focuses on symptom management while trying to prevent the endometriosis from spreading. Doctors typically suggest one or more of the following three treatment options:
- Painkillers — The most widely-prescribed resource for dealing with endometriosis is an effective painkiller. Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesic painkillers help sufferers cope with the painful symptoms of endometriosis, but do nothing to prevent the disease from progressing. Sometimes more extreme painkillers are prescribed, with debilitating systemic effects ( as one Foria client with endometriosis discovered before switching to cannabis therapy).
- Hormones — Another popular prescription is for hormone therapy, which is thought to alleviate symptoms by reducing the strength and/or quantity of menstrual cycles. However, some patients respond poorly to hormone therapy.
- Surgery — Doctors can surgically remove the misplaced endometrial tissue, which often provides tremendous relief. for a while. Unfortunately, there is a high risk of complications, and approximately half of patients will have their symptoms return within one year , requiring further treatment. Another surgical option is an ovariectomy — both surgical and natural menopause will end the cyclical nature of endometrial torture. Unfortunately, pain from permanent endometriosis scar damage could persist beyond menopause, requiring lifelong pain management.
What Causes Endometriosis?
In order to develop more effective treatments, scientists are working to piece together exactly how endometrial tissue thrives where it doesn’t belong. The most popular theory is that menstrual blood flows the wrong direction, carrying endometrial tissue to the fallopian tubes, ovaries or abdomen. Others speculate that environmental factors or toxins might cause the body to spontaneously produce endometrial cells in the wrong place.
However the initial cells arrive , once they are there, they grow and spread (similar to cancer cells) by somehow multiplying and avoiding destruction by the body’s security force. They recruit blood veins to supply nutrients and remove waste products (also like cancer), and they grow new nerve endings that increase pain perception. Also similar to cancer cells, endometriosis can migrate to other tissues in order to claim more territory — even reclaiming lost territory after surgery. Although endometriosis is considered a benign disease, patients whose bodies are unable to prevent the spread of endometriosis (due to genetics or environmental factors) also have a much higher risk for ovarian cancer .
Due to the similarities, some speculate that treatments that stop cancer from developing and spreading might do the same for endometriosis.
Cannabis & Endometriosis
People across the world use cannabis and hemp extracts to treat endometriosis, menstrual cramps and other gynecological complications — and they’ve been using them for millennia . In the last few decades, THC and CBD have been shown to be effective therapies with relatively few side effects.
One reason scientists are enthusiastic about these compounds is the recent discovery that the body’s natural endocannabinoid system is integral to the healthy functioning of the reproductive tract .
In fact, imbalances in these neurotransmitters are often linked to reproductive complications and diseases — including endometriosis — and it seems that careful use of phytocannabinoid supplements, topicals, and suppositories could make a huge difference in the underlying imbalance. How?
Cannabinoids Stop Cell Multiplication
Normally, your body has tools to prevent the growth of aberrant cells and to destroy them ( apoptosis ) before they become a problem. Unfortunately, apoptosis seems to be impaired in people who suffer from endometriosis and similar disorders.
The endocannabinoid system is involved in apoptosis and stopping cell growth. Perhaps the most famous application of these effects is in cancer treatments. When certain cannabinoid receptors are activated (either by the body’s endocannabinoids or by plant-sourced THC), they can prevent cancer cells from multiplying .
Similar research has shown that activating these receptors inhibits endometriotic tissue from proliferating in mice.
CBD: Preventing Cell Migration
A frustrating problem for patients who have their endometriotic lesions surgically removed is that the endometriosis frequently comes back. However, scientists recently discovered that endocannabinoids are involved in regulating cell-migration.
It turns out that molecules like CBD can stop endometriotic cells from migrating (by blocking the activation of the GPR18 receptor). However, molecules like THC that activate this receptor could potentially increase cell migration. This suggests that women who self-medicate with THC should consider counterbalancing its effects with CBD .
Starving the Bloodsuckers
In order for anything to grow, it needs a supply of nutrients. Likewise, endometriotic lesions can only proliferate if they develop a network of blood vessels (vascularization) in order to receive the required nutrients.
Although research on the influence of cannabinoids on endometriotic vascularization is limited, multiple studies have shown that both THC and CBD can inhibit vascularization of cancerous lesions.
CBD vs Painful Nerves
Some patients suffer from deep-infiltrating endometriosis — a more painful form of endometriosis that embeds deeper into abdominal tissue. One reason these lesions might be more painful is that they contain a much higher density of nerves than other lesions.
Endocannabinoids regulate nerve growth, and their receptors (CB1) are expressed on the nerves that innervate endometriotic lesions. Molecules like CBD interfere with innervation by preventing activation of this receptor. However, this might suggest that using THC without the counterbalancing effects of CBD could result in a long-term increase in endometriosis innervation.
CBD: Like Advil Without the Side-Effects
NSAIDs like Advil are one of the most frequently-prescribed treatments for endometriosis. NSAIDs work by inhibiting certain enzymes (named COX-2 ) that contribute to inflammation. Unfortunately, NSAIDs thin your blood and can have gastrointestinal side effects because they also inhibit other enzymes (such as COX-1 ). It turns out that CBD’s anti-inflammatory effects come with fewer of these side-effects because it specifically inhibits COX-2 but not COX-1 .
Cannabinoids Calm An Overactive Immune System
A large number of your body’s endocannabinoid receptors (CB2) are located on your immune system’s killer cells ( macrophages ). When these receptors are activated, they prevent macrophages from releasing inflammatory proteins ( cytokines ).
People who suffer from endometriosis become hypersensitized to inflammatory toxins and signals. Fortunately, THC activates CB2 receptors , which is a large contributor to THC’s anti-inflammatory properties. This is useful for out of control inflammation caused by an overactive immune system — though depressing the immune system isn’t always desirable.
CBD & THC vs Pain Signals
Nerves that innervate endometriotic lesions can increase the pain of endometriosis. These nerves also contain endocannabinoid receptors (CB1) , and when THC activates this receptor it can help decrease pain.
CBD also helps relieve feelings of pain, but through other targets. Most notably, CBD is capable of desensitizing the pain receptor TRPV1 .
Lifestyle Changes for Endometriosis
Scientists are still uncovering the different ways that cannabinoids like CBD and THC impact endometriosis, and standardized medical advice could be years away. Until then, careful self-experimentation is the best way to determine the optimal combination of cannabinoids to complement your current endometriosis treatment.
Many people with endometriosis have already incorporated cannabinoids into their self-care routine, and we encourage you to check out their testimonials before making your decision. To read about the personal stories and lifestyle changes that have helped other Foria clients gain control over their endometriosis, start here and here .
Whether or not you incorporate cannabinoids into your self-care routine, there are many alternative treatments available if a purely pharmaceutical or medical treatment is falling short.
Dietary changes often have profound effects on endometriosis symptoms. An anti-inflammatory diet that’s rich in omega-3 fatty acids, fiber and antioxidants is a good place to start. You may also find that acupuncture and meditation are effective tools for pain management. Additionally, other herbal supplements could target endometriosis in ways similar to cannabinoids.
As always, before making any changes to your endometriosis treatment, make sure to consult with a trusted medical professional.
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If you’ve been diagnosed with endometriosis, then you’re probably already aware that there’s currently no cure. This is why many patients are seeking holistic approaches to deal with their recurrent symptoms – through diet and other lifestyle changes – and incorporating CBD and THC into their treatment routine. Learn More.
CBD & Cannabis for Endometriosis
Endometriosis, the abnormal growth of cells similar to those in the lining of the womb, is a condition that affects 1 in 10 of women of reproductive age. That’s a staggering 176 million women worldwide. 1
For reasons still not fully understood, endometrial tissue begins to grow outside the uterus, gathering around the nearby pelvic organs such as the fallopian tubes, ovaries, bladder, and bowel. The trouble is, every time a woman goes through the bleeding phase of her menstrual cycle, so do the errant endometrial cells. Although in their case, there is nowhere for the blood to exit the body, causing pain, inflammation, and in some cases the formation of scar tissue.
Not all women experience the excruciating pain and heavy periods associated with the disease, but even in these less severe cases, if left untreated, endometriosis can lead to infertility.
‘A woman’s lot’
Laura, 29 from the UK and author of The Endo Monologues, started noticing she had heavier periods than her friends at the age of fourteen. Like many women and girls with ‘problem periods,’ she was put on the pill which helped at first.
Women sufferers are frequently told to simply ‘put up with’ the pain as it’s part of being a woman.
“My pain kind of started to get worse in my late teens, early 20s,” recalls Laura. “I was missing school, I started missing university. And it just felt like I had a hot knife piercing around my pelvic area and my back.”
Echoing the experience of most endometriosis patients, the pain was worse around her periods. “I’d be bed bound,” says Laura. “Being on the pill kind of shortened it but it hurt to go to the toilet, it hurt to walk, it hurt to sleep, I couldn’t have sex, it just became unbearable.”
For years Laura’s pain was not taken seriously, reflecting an overall gender bias in drug research and medicine itself. 2
It’s been reported that when it comes to pain, women are more likely than men to be given sedatives rather than actual pain medication, probably stemming from an erroneous link between women’s health and hysteria dating back to the Ancient Greeks. 3 This was certainly Laura’s experience.
“I was made to think that I was just being overdramatic and that maybe I was just over exaggerating it because I wanted the attention and was almost being gaslit to be made to feel that it was in my head. They said, ‘Oh, well, you know, it’s just your period, that’s how it is.’ It very much got brushed aside.”
In Laura’s case, accusations of promiscuity were even made by her doctor, and she was sent off to a STI [sexually transmitted infection] clinic before her symptoms were finally taken seriously. A laparoscopy revealed stage 4 endometriosis on her ovaries, uterus, bladder, bowl, and pouch of douglas. The stray endometrial tissue was surgically removed.
But endometrial cells are tenacious and persistent, and surgery provides only temporary respite from the pain. The tissue almost always returns accompanied by the all too familiar excruciating symptoms. In addition to over-the-counter pain medication, such NSAID s and paracetamol, standard treatments include the contraceptive pill or coil containing progesterone, which limits the development of endometriosis in a percentage of patients. (Estrogen on the other hand encourages endometriosis to grow and spread.)
With many patients still enduring unbearable pain, self-care methods such as breathing techniques, yoga, and stretching, as well as cannabis and CBD oil, are commonly used to bridge the gap. One Australian online survey interviewing women from an endometriosis support group found that cannabis and CBD oil were the most effective of all the self-care techniques for endometriosis pain. 4
For Laura, CBD oil was a game-changer in managing her symptoms. With suggestions gleaned from endometriosis online forums, she began applying CBD lube, vaping CBD , and using CBD tinctures.
“I finished the bottle and I kind of thought, did it make a difference?” recalls Laura. “And then after not taking CBD for a week, I realized how much pain I was actually in. And I was like, you know what, I’ve got to keep taking this. So I use the vape if I’m having a really bad flare-up, and I take it as an oil daily now to the point where I haven’t had to use over-the-counter painkillers for nearly a year. There’s been a couple of times when I’ve run out and I’m in so much pain that I’m stuck in bed or I’ve had to come home from work because I can’t move. So I use it religiously now. And it’s made such a difference to my pain levels and my mental health. I just feel better when I’m taking it.”
Endometriosis & Endocannabinoid Dysfunction
While cannabis brings pain relief to thousands if not millions of women around the world with endometriosis, it’s possible the plant’s therapeutic potential may stretch beyond just managing the pain and could limit the spread of endometrial cells around the body.
A dysfunction of the cannabinoid receptors ( CB1 and CB2 ) may explain why overeager cells are left unchecked in endometriosis.
In a similar way to cancer, endometrial cells tenaciously refuse to die and migrate to other parts of the human organism. When functioning optimally, the endocannabinoid system – the body’s innate regulating system – should be able to cause apoptosis (natural cell death) and prevent unwanted cell proliferation. However, in the case of endometriosis, for some reason the cells are left to run riot.
Exactly how or why this happens is not fully understood by medical scientists. Whereas copious anecdotal evidence attests to the efficacy of cannabis for symptom relief, the molecular mechanisms for these effects still need to be elucidated.
Could an endocannabinoid system deficiency be a contributing factor to the development of endometriosis? Project CBD posed the question directly to Ethan Russo, MD , who originally coined the phrase clinical endocannabinoid deficiency. Dr. Russo is currently the director of CR eDO Science, a company developing and commercializing cannabinoid-related innovations with medical, diagnostic, and industrial applications.
Russo suggests that a dysfunction of the cannabinoid receptors ( CB1 and CB2 ) may explain why overeager cells are left unchecked in endometriosis. “In endometriosis lesions compared to controls, there has been a decrease in both the CB1 and CB2 receptors,” he notes.
THC & Cell Death
It’s possible then to surmise that with fewer CB1 and CB2 receptors in endometrial tissue available for endocannabinoids to bind with, the natural process of apoptosis may be disrupted, allowing aberrant cells to multiply and spread. In preclinical research, cannabinoid compounds – endogenous, phyto or synthetic – that target these two receptors appear to control the development of endometriosis.
“In 2017 there was a study 5 ,” Russo recalls, “that showed that drugs that stimulate CB1 and CB2 both were responsible for decreased proliferation, growth of endometrial tissue, and promoting its breakdown or what’s called apoptosis. Which sounds bad, but this is a normal, programmed cell death that should occur in normal cells, and it’s lost in abnormal growth such as tumors, or in endometriosis. It helps to explain why THC [tetrahydrocannabinol] and potentially other components of cannabis would be symptomatically helpful, and also affect the actual pathological process of endometriosis.”
In a recently published paper 6 examining the effect of THC on a mouse model of endometriosis, the psychotropic cannabinoid not only reduced pain measurements but also limited the development of endometrial cysts.
But it’s not just THC ’s binding activity at CB1 and CB2 that Russo believes might limit the spread of endometrial cells. Other receptors beyond the canonical endocannabinoid system may also regulate the symptoms and progression of this disease.
CBD for Pain Relief
Endometrium patient forums are alive with anecdotal accounts of patients finding pain relief from taking CBD oil. This may well be attributable to CBD ’s activation of the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor, which can be overly expressed in endometriosis patients. 7 TRPV1 is a gated ion-channel that generally causes pain when stimulated.
“It’s made such a difference to my pain levels and my mental health. I just feel better when I’m taking CBD .”
According to Russo, “Cannabidiol is a stimulator of the TRPV1 receptor that is able to desensitize it. That’s a way of saying that after a little bit [of stimulation], the TRPV1 receptor doesn’t respond anymore. So it’s a way of treating pain.” Indeed, the soothing feel of a hot pad is partly thanks to mild activation of heat-sensitive TRPV1 receptors, which leads to desensitization and painkilling. 8
Russo also draws attention to “ GPR18 ,” another receptor that may play a role in endometriosis. GPR18 is activated by several endogenous lipid neurotransmitters that also interact with the endocannabinoid system. For example, GPR18 is known to bind with N-Arachidonyl glycine ( NAG ly), a compound formed when anandamide, the endocannabinoid, is metabolized by the FAAH enzyme. By inhibiting FAAH , cannabidiol ( CBD ) slows the breakdown of anandamide into NAG ly (a GPR18 stimulant) and other metabolites.
Says Russo: “We know that when GPR18 is stimulated, it will increase cellular migration. So in cancer, for example, if you have something that stimulates GPR18 , it makes metastasis more likely. As it turns out, some years ago, cannabidiol was shown to be an antagonist of the GPR18 receptor … Because CBD is an antagonist at this receptor, it should help prevent the abnormal spread of the endometrial tissue.” 9
However, as is often the case in preclinical cannabinoid research, there are more questions than answers and nothing is quite as clear cut as it seems. Contradictory findings are not uncommon when targeting a receptor like an on/off switch. Both THC and anandamide also activate the GPR18 receptor in preclinical studies, and activation of this receptor promotes endometrial cell migration – not exactly the desired therapeutic effect for an endometriosis patient. 10
Research conducted by Heather Bradshaw’s group at Indiana University suggests that endocannabinoid dysregulaton – specifically aberrant anandamide metabolism – may be a key factor in the etiology of endometriosis. And while CBD ’s potential to halt endometrial cell migration is speculative at this stage, its efficacy as a painkiller is much appreciated by women with endometriosis.
Whole Plant Cannabis Not Isolates
With all this talk of individual cannabinoids and their mechanisms, it would be easy to think that the cannabis plant in its entirety has no place in treating endometriosis.
A passionate proponent of the entourage effect, Dr. Russo is adamant about the importance of whole plant cannabis medicine as a healing modality for endometriosis and other conditions. 11 He maintains there are “multiple components of cannabis that can be put together in the right preparation to treat endometriosis, both in terms of symptoms, the pain, and affecting the disease process itself.”
“We’re dealing with complex problems here,” he says. “And it’s rare these days that an issue like endometriosis or cancer or diabetes is going to be successfully treated with one agent. You know, the tendency in traditional pharmacology is to pick a target and be very specific dealing with it. But it may be ignoring the bigger picture, so it’s rare that one molecular mechanism treating it is going to take care of the whole syndrome of associated symptoms.
“And this is a situation where I like to remind people that throughout human history, plants have been medicine … We’ve developed these new chemical entities – drugs – but a lot of those were related directly or indirectly to plant-based substances. And often, these are going to be not only as or more efficacious, but generally speaking, are going to have fewer side effects than some of the synthetic molecules that our bodies may not recognize or break down terrifically well. So they can tend to have a lot of associated toxicities.”
Endometriosis Clinical Research
In what is possibly yet another reflection of the underrepresentation of women’s health in scientific research, thus far no clinical trials have taken place examining the efficacy of cannabis medicine in women with endometriosis.
The closest example has been a randomized placebo trial studying the effectiveness of N-Palmitoylethanolamine ( PEA ), another endogenous lipid signaling molecule (and a close relative of anandamide), alongside trans-polydatin (a natural precursor of resveratrol), for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. 12 The PEA /polydatin treatment showed some promise; it was more effective than a placebo in decreasing cramping, pain during intercourse, and general pelvic pain, but not as effective as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the trial.
Two phytocannabinoid clinical trials are in the offing. In a Spanish open label phase II trial, 13 a 1:1 ratio of THC and CBD will be administered in a bid to reduce hyperalgesia in endometriosis patients. While in another phase III double blind placebo study 14 patients will receive norethindrone acetate, a type of hormonal treatment, plus either 10mg or 20mg of CBD for the management of endometriosis pain.
But it will be years before sufficient robust evidence is gathered to convince the medical profession that cannabinoids are an effective way to manage endometriosis symptoms. In the meantime, cannabis will no doubt continue to play an indispensable role in the selfcare repertoire of women around the world in managing their endometriosis pain.
Dr Ethan Russo’s full interview about endocannabinoid deficiency can be heard on the podcast Cannabis Voices.
Mary Biles, a UK -based journalist, educator, and Project CBD contributing writer, is the author of The CBD Book (Harper Collins, UK ).
Copyright, Project CBD . May not be reprinted without permission.
Many women with endometriosis use cannabis and CBD for pain relief, and cannabis therapeutics may also limit the spread of endometrial cells around the body.