kevin hemping

Could Manchester hold the key to catching Kevin ‘Hemp’ Parle? The 15-year hunt for a double murder suspect

The ‘private citizen’ hunting ‘most wanted’ fugitive believes Parle is known to local underworld characters

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  • 17:36, 27 SEP 2020

A Manchester gangland link could help trace a fugitive wanted for 15 years in connection with two gun murders.

That is the view of an ex-Scotland Yard cop turned private investigator who has spent 18 months hunting Kevin Parle.

Now 40, 6ft 6ins Parle, nicknamed ‘Hemp’, went on the run after being quizzed by police over two killings. Today he is one of Britain’s most wanted men.

In 2004 Liam Kelly, 16, was shot in the arm and chest in Grafton Street, Dingle, Liverpool.

In 2005 Lucy Hargreaves, a mother-of-three, was shot three times as she slept under a duvet on a sofa at her home in Walton, Liverpool. Three masked men had stormed into her home, looking for her boyfriend, a man named Gary Campbell, a court was later told.

Peter Bleksley, a former detective with the Metropolitan Police, is determined to find Parle, and has penned a book and done a BBC podcast about it – both called ‘Manhunt: Hunting Britain’s Most Wanted Murderer’.

There is a long history of collaboration between organised crime groups in Greater Manchester and Parle’s native Merseyside, in the UK and abroad.

And Mr Bleksley believes figures linked to Greater Manchester’s underworld may have information that could lead to establishing the whereabouts of Parle, who is believed to have moved between a number of foreign holiday destinations while at large.

Individuals Mr Bleksley wants to speak to in his research into the case include Leon Cullen, the alleged boss of a Warrington-based crime gang who faces extradition from the United Arab Emirates on drugs and firearms charges.

Another man who Mr Bleksley wants to speak to is Michael ‘Cazza’ Carroll, who prosecutors allege was part of an underworld murder conspiracy in 2014 and 2015.

In two trials in 2019 Carroll was said to be the boss of a group called ‘The Anti A Team’, involved in a lethal war with rivals, ‘The A-Team’ which led to the murder of Paul Massey in Clifton, Salford in 2015; the shooting of a seven-year-old boy and his mother on their doorstep in Winton, Eccles, three months later, and the murder of Mr Massey’s friend, John Kinsella, in 2017.

After the shooting of Mr Massey, Mr Carroll was said to have fled to Spain. Graffiti appeared on walls throughout Salford branding ‘Cazza’ an informer, and urging him to return to ‘come fight your war’.

An A-Team hit squad was dispatched to Spain and police believe Carroll was their target. But the hit was thwarted after police raided a Marbella flat in February 2016.

They recovered weapons, including a loaded pistol. Detectives believe the team intended to capture and torture Mr Carroll before dumping his body in the Mediterranean.

In January this year a gunman fired two shots into a house in Crumpsall, north Manchester, where Mr Carroll’s in-laws live.

The couple escaped injury despite shots being fired into the house after the front door was opened and the letterbox.

They had just returned from a holiday in Dubai.

Mr Carroll is believed to be in Dubai, where Mr Bleksley believes Kevin Parle has been sighted, and where Leon Cullen was arrested earlier this year.

Mr Bleksley, said: “I have received information that Michael Carroll was connected to both Leon Cullen who is now in custody in Dubai awaiting extradition to the UK, and Kevin Parle.

“I have tried my best to try and speak to Michael Carroll,” he added.

“I remain very interested in talking to him. He has gone very much off the radar in recent years, but I have him very much in my sights. My inquiries to locate Michael Carroll continue.

“If anybody has information to help me with that they should contact me.

“I am sure that Kevin Parle has had to develop links with criminals from areas other than Liverpool to be able to remain on the run successfully for 15 years.”

Mr Bleksley claims to have received information placing Parle in Albir in northern Spain in September 2019, frequenting a club.

“Where is he now? I can’t tell you the information I have about the here and now because I don’t want Parle to know what I know, and trust me I know a lot,” the private investigator told the Manchester Evening News.

He said it was believed Parle had spent time in Thailand and later Dubai. The most recent sighting was on December 27th last year in La Palma, one of Spain’s Canary Islands.

“I do have to give him, begrudgingly some kind of credit for that, because he has so far, been very successful, but he has not had a my podcast with two and a half million downloads (to deal with) until recently,” Mr Bleksley said.

“There hasn’t been a book about him published until last week. All the publicity I am getting is shrinking the world, squeezing the planet so tightly that at some stage his 6ft 6in frame is going to pop up.

“I am not investigating the murders,” Mr Bleksley said. “I deliberately set myself narrow parameters in so much as I am simply trying to find Parle. It is the police’s job to investigate those murders.

“I have been made privy to a lot of information about who apparently killed who, and who is serving drugs to who. None of which I have passed on to the police, none of which interests me unless it helps me in my quest to find Kevin Parle.

“I have committed a lot of time. It occupies virtually every waking moment and some of my sleeping moments as well. But this was my idea. No one has ever done this before in terms of a private citizen hunting Britain’s most wanted fugitive.

“Perhaps I was a bit naive. It really has been one hell of a journey – the personal price I have paid, the abuse I have had, the insults, the trolling, the posting of photographs of my house online, together with an accurate description of the bedroom I sleep in.

“But this spurs me on. It makes me even more determined to achieve my goal of finding him. There has been a price to pay, because one of my children was extremely concerned and started double locking the door and wanted to change his name when he got to 18, but I have managed to set aside those fears somewhat.

“My family, who I am lucky to have, realise that I am not going to stop. As long as I am drawing breath and can put one foot in front of the other, and can bash a keyboard, I will be hunting for Kevin Parle.

“Am I confident that he will be found? Yes, he will be found. Life is becoming more and more difficult for him. A considerable number of very courageous people are coming forward and telling me what they know, and his time on the run is going to be brought to an end.

“A court was told back in 2006 that the motive for the attack on Lucy’s house was to do harm to Gary Campbell. The difficulty with that is that that case collapsed, and two men walked free.

“Gary Campbell, in my opinion, was most definitely the target. But these brutal, stupid, idiotic killers took Lucy’s life instead.”

Peter added: “It has become my life’s mission to find Kevin Parle. I know that in the early stages of his time as a fugitive he had money stashed in various places in and around Liverpool.

“However I suspect it didn’t take him very long to work his way through that money.

“What I firmly believe is that he has been an asset to organised crime, and they, in return for him being a heavy, a henchman, a useful man to have around – they have harboured him and funded him.”

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Anyone with information for Peter can contact him on 07908617694 or via his website at Contact Merseyside Police via or Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111.

Peter’s book is out now, published by Ad Lib in paperback.

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Get breaking news first on the free Manchester Evening News app – download it here for your Apple or Android device. You can also get a round-up of the biggest stories sent direct to your inbox every day with the MEN email newsletter – subscribe here. And you can follow us on Facebook here.

The 'private citizen' hunting 'most wanted' fugitive believes Parle is known to local underworld characters

Kevin hemping

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nh medical marijuana


New Hampshire

Is weed legal in New Hampshire?

Medical marijuana is legal in the Granite State for patients with qualifying conditions.

New Hampshire decriminalized marijuana in 2017. Possession of 21 grams of cannabis or cannabis-infused products with no more than 300 milligrams of THC, or up to 5 grams of hash can be punished with a fine up to $100 for a first and second offense. A third offense within three years could bring a $300 fine.

Legalization history

New Hampshire became the 19th state in the nation and the last in New England to allow medical marijuana in 2013 when it passed House Bill 573. The law established a list of qualifying conditions, albeit restrictive. Under the law, not only did a patient need a diagnosis of a qualifying condition, but they also had to exhibit severe symptoms of the debilitating condition.

HB 573 required dispensaries to be nonprofit and set requirements for medical marijuana cards and purchase and possession limits. The original law also did not allow for home growing.

In 2014, the New Hampshire House of Representatives approved a marijuana legalization bill, but it later died in the Senate.

New Hampshire decriminalized marijuana in 2017. Possession of cannabis of 0.75 ounce or less became a civil offense punishable with a $100 fine for a first or second offense and $300 for a third offense.

New legalization attempts may face an uphill battle after the November 2020 election since Gov. Chris Sununu, an opponent, was re-elected and few supporters remained in the legislature.

Where is it safe to purchase?

Medical cannabis is overseen and regulated by the Therapeutic Cannabis Program of the Department of Health and Human Services. Registered patients can purchase medical marijuana at one of the state’s dispensaries, called Alternative Treatment Centers (ATCs). Patients can only shop at the ATC they chose during registration. Delivery is not available.

Patients can purchase no more than 2 ounces of marijuana or marijuana products within a 10-day period and may not possess more than that amount. Patients and caregivers between them can’t possess more than 2 ounces at a time.

Find licensed dispensaries in New Hampshire

Medical marijuana cardholders can find licensed dispensaries in New Hampshire and search by major metro areas. Many dispensaries in New Hampshire offer curbside pickup services in addition to storefront sales.

Where is it safe to consume?

In New Hampshire, marijuana cannot be consumed in public. In addition, it is illegal to possess medical marijuana in school buildings or on school grounds, at public recreation and youth centers, or at a place of employment without the employer’s written permission.

Medical marijuana program

New Hampshire’s Department of Health and Human Services oversees the Therapeutic Cannabis Program (TCP). New Hampshire residents 18 years or older can complete an application once they’ve received a Written Certification for the Therapeutic Use of Cannabis from a qualified medical professional. The patient and provider must have an ongoing relationship of at least three months (though there are some exceptions). Parents or guardians can apply for minor patients.

Qualifying conditions

New Hampshire recognizes the following conditions:

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig’s disease
  • Cancer
  • Chronic pancreatitis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • Epilepsy
  • Glaucoma
  • Hepatitis C
  • Lupus
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Spinal cord injury or disease
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Ulcerative colitis

Additionally, the condition must be severely debilitating or terminal, or its treatment has produced at least one of the following symptoms:

  • Agitation of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Cachexia, or wasting syndrome
  • Chemotherapy-induced anorexia
  • Constant or severe nausea
  • Elevated intraocular pressure, or glaucoma
  • Moderate to severe vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Severe, persistent muscle spasms
  • Severe pain that has not responded to previously prescribed medication or surgical measures, or for which other treatment options produce serious side effects

Registry process

Patients must visit a doctor, doctor’s assistant, or advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) licensed in New Hampshire or a doctor or APRN licensed in Maine, Massachusetts, or Vermont to be diagnosed with a qualifying condition and receive a written certification. Patients can then visit the TCP website to register.

Applications must include:

  • Written Certification for the Therapeutic Use of Cannabis from the patient’s physician
  • State-issued ID or other proof of New Hampshire residency
  • $50 application fee

A patient may designate a caregiver at any time. The designated caregiver must be 21 years or older and never convicted of a felony. They must complete an application and a background check to be approved by the TCP. The caregiver must have a Caregiver Registry ID card before assisting the patient.


While medical marijuana patients from other states are not allowed to purchase from ATCs, they can legally possess cannabis as long as they have a condition on New Hampshire’s list of qualifying conditions.


New Hampshire medical marijuana laws require that each batch of cannabis be tested by a state-licensed lab.

Labs must test for:

  • Cannabinoid profile and potency
  • Chemicals
  • Heavy metals
  • Microbes
  • Mycotoxins
  • Pesticides
  • Residual solvents (for concentrates only)


When will New Hampshire decriminalize weed?

New Hampshire decriminalized weed in 2017. Possession of 21 grams of cannabis or cannabis-infused products with no more than 300 milligrams of THC, or up to 5 grams of hash can be punished with a fine up to $100 for a first and second offense. A third offense within three years could result in a $300 fine. These charges and fines do not result in arrest records.

This page was last updated on November 11, 2020.

View the marijuana laws & regulations for New Hampshire.

Nh medical marijuana

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Therapeutic Cannabis Program (TCP) is making the following temporary changes to the program.

September 4, 2020
Criminal Background Check Update

The NH State Police has restarted fingerprinting on a “voluntary” basis. The Governor’s Executive Order is still in place, and the fingerprinting requirement is still deferred, but now, applicants may choose to be fingerprinted. Please call 603‐223‐3867 to schedule an appointment at one of the NH Department of Safety’s fingerprint locations.

August 14, 2020
Telehealth Update

The Governor’s Emergency Order #8 permits telehealth for health care service delivery. The Therapeutic Cannabis Program’s prohibition on the use of telehealth for cannabis certification is temporarily suspended. The required “in person” assessment may be conducted via telehealth during the declared state of emergency.

Border State Medical Providers (Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont). Telehealth service delivery is not permitted across state borders unless an out-of-state provider is registered with the New Hampshire Board of Medicine or the New Hampshire Board of Nursing. Information about emergency licensure in NH during the declared state of emergency is available on the Office of Professional Licensure and Certification page COVID-19 Licensee Resources.

Registry ID Card Extension Has Ended . The extension described in the April 10 update below has ended. Beginning August 1 all patients must have a valid, non-expired Registry ID Card in order to purchase therapeutic cannabis.

Waiver of CAREGIVER Application Fee Is Extended. The waiver of this fee, described in the March 19 update below, has been extended until the end of the declared state of emergency.

Alternative Treatment Centers (ATCs). The Therapeutic Cannabis Program strongly recommends the use of face coverings (masks) by all patients and caregivers in order to access the inside of the dispensaries. The ATCs may require masks to be worn in order to enter the facilities.

Call ahead before going to your ATC for the most current information about:

  • Hours of operation
  • Pre-ordering
  • Curbside pickup or appointment-only pickup
  • Access to the inside of the dispensaries

TCP Extends Registry ID Card Expiration Dates for QUALIFYING PATIENTS. All Qualifying Patient Registry ID Cards that are due to expire in the months of April, May, and June 2020 have been extended until July 31, 2020.

  • New Registry ID Cards will not be issued with the new, extended expiration date.
  • You will still need to show your “expired” card at your ATC in order to obtain therapeutic cannabis.
  • ATCs will accept these “expired” cards until July 31, 2020.
  • When you renew your card, the expiration date for your renewal card will be one year from the original expiration date.
  • Registry ID Cards for Designated Caregivers are not being extended at this time. (See below for updated information on Designated Caregivers, including the waived application fee.)

29 Hazen Drive Closed to the Public. Starting Tuesday, April 7, the building at 29 Hazen Drive is closed to the public. TCP encourages applicants to send their applications through the regular mail. If you choose to hand-deliver your application, there is a locked drop-box available outside the front of 29 Hazen Drive where you can securely leave your application materials.

  • ATCs are considered essential businesses
  • All ATCs are currently open for business.
  • All ATCs have reduced hours .
  • All ATCs require patients to pre-order . Check with your ATC to see if phone or online ordering is available.
  • Some ATCs have implemented “curbside” pickup of orders.
  • Some ATCs have implemented appointment-only pickup.
  • Patients should call ahead before going to their ATC for the most current information.

Criminal History Record Checks for DESIGNATED CAREGIVERS . Requests for criminal history record checks are being conducted remotely (via regular mail), and the requirement for FBI fingerprinting has been deferred until after the State of Emergency has ended.

  • State background check is still required.
  • Federal FBI background check, and fingerprinting, is temporarily deferred.
  • All scheduled appointments for fingerprinting have been cancelled.
  • Fingerprinting will be required within 30 days of the State of Emergency ending.

To request a state criminal history records check:

  • Complete the Criminal History Record Authorization – Therapeutic Cannabis form .
    • The form does not need to be notarized.
  • Mail the completed form, and a check or money order for $25.00, made out to “State of NH – Criminal Records,” to:
    New Hampshire State Police
    Criminal Records Unit
    33 Hazen Drive
    Concord, NH 03305

TCP will notify you after the State of Emergency has been lifted that the requirement for fingerprinting has been reinstated.

Telehealth . The Governor’s emergency order permits telehealth for health care service delivery. The requirement for an “in-person” examination for the purposes of certification and recertification for the therapeutic use of cannabis has been suspended. The required assessment may be conducted via telehealth.

TCP waives the DESIGNATED CAREGIVER application fee . The TCP is encouraging patients to designate a caregiver so that if patients become sick and cannot safely and responsibly access their ATC, they will have an alternative way of acquiring therapeutic cannabis, via their Designated Caregiver. To that end, the TCP is waiving the Designated Caregiver application fee, beginning immediately and through July 31, 2020.

If the TCP has already cashed an applicant’s check or money order, that applicant will not be issued a refund. All caregiver application fees that are received by the TCP beginning Thursday, March 19, will be returned to the sender. Note that the fee required by the Department of Safety for the criminal background check is not being waived at this time.

January 2020 Public Hearing — Qualifying Medical Conditions for the Therapeutic Use of Cannabis

The Therapeutic Cannabis Medical Oversight Board and the DHHS Therapeutic Cannabis Program will hold a public hearing to gather input from the public on a proposed addition to the list of qualifying medical conditions for the therapeutic use of cannabis.

Date: Wednesday, February 5
Time: 4:00 pm to 5:30 pm
Location: DHHS, 29 Hazen Drive, Room 312 [directions]
Written Comment Period Ends: Wednesday, February 12
Send written comments to: [email protected]
Contact: Michael Holt, (603) 271-9234, [email protected]

The following medical condition is under consideration as a qualifying medical condition for the therapeutic use of cannabis:

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder

Changes to the Therapeutic Cannabis Program Application Process
SB 88 made the following changes to the therapeutic cannabis law:

Medical Providers Can Certify Their Patients Sooner . Starting on November 18, 2019, a 3-month provider-patient relationship is no longer required. On that date, the NH Therapeutic Cannabis Program will begin accepting Written Certifications that have been signed by certifying medical providers who do not have a 3-month provider-patient relationship with their patients. The Written Certification for the Therapeutic Use of Cannabis has been updated to reflect this change.

No Photograph Needed . Starting on November 18, 2019, a photograph is not required to be submitted with an application to the Therapeutic Cannabis Program. Also, all Registry ID Cards printed on or after that date will not contain a photo of the patient or caregiver’s face. Patients and caregivers will still be required to show other photo identification at the Alternative Treatment Centers in order to purchase cannabis. The Patient Application and the Caregiver Application have been updated to reflect this change. Other changes have been made to these application forms as well.

Vaping-Related Lung Injuries
The New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Public Health Services (DPHS), is investigating vaping-related lung injuries as part of a multistate outbreak associated with use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products. Learn more in the DHHS fact sheet on Vaping-Related Lung Injuries .

Therapeutic Cannabis Program 2019 Data Report
The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has released the Therapeutic Cannabis Program 2019 Data Report . The report provides information from the Therapeutic Cannabis Registry, the annual reports from the Alternative Treatment Centers, and the Qualifying Patient Satisfaction Survey. It provides details about qualifying patients and designated caregivers who were active in the program as of June 30, 2019.

DHHS provides this report annually to the New Hampshire Legislature’s Health and Human Services Oversight Committee, the New Hampshire Board of Medicine, and the New Hampshire Board of Nursing. The report provides important information on patterns of certification in several categories: qualifying patient and designated caregiver, location, age, medical condition, symptom or side effect, and medical provider. Data from the report can then be used for analysis and research to inform future policy, educational, and clinical decisions.

In addition, the 2019 report contains an addendum related to HB 335 from the 2019 legislative session regarding the expansion of therapeutic cannabis dispensary locations in the state.

As of October 1, 2019, the program is being used by 8,566 qualifying patients, 448 designated caregivers, and 1,101 certifying providers.

2016 Report
(Dec. 19, 2016)
2017 Report
(June 30, 2017)
2018 Report
(June 30, 2018)
2019 Report
(June 30, 2019)
(Oct. 1, 2019)
Qualifying Patients 2,089 3,493 6,480 8,302 8,566
Designated Caregivers 129 258 428 480 488
Certifying Providers 560 703 935 1,084 1,101

The Therapeutic Cannabis Program Has Moved

New Location: Division of Public Health Services, 29 Hazen Drive, Concord, NH.

The Therapeutic Cannabis Program’s (TCP) office location has moved to 29 Hazen Drive, Concord, NH. Please use the new address when mailing application materials. If you are hand-delivering application materials, please bring them to the new office location.

Application materials will still be available and accepted at the Brown Building, at 129 Pleasant Street, Concord, and any mail addressed to 129 Pleasant Street will get to the TCP, but using this location and address may delay the processing of your application.

Over the next few months, all of the applications, forms, and information sheets will be updated with the new mailing address:

  • NH Department of Health & Human Services
    Therapeutic Cannabis Program
    29 Hazen Drive
    Concord, NH 03301

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Nh medical marijuana In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Therapeutic Cannabis Program (TCP) is making the following temporary changes to the program. September 4, 2020 Criminal


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UnCanna uses state of the art extraction technology to ensure a true Broad Spectrum Cannabinoid profile is reflected in our product. Our Broad Spectrum products do not contain any detectable levels of THC, it is a true THC-Free Distillate CBD Oil. Consistent third-party lab testing ensures safety, purity, and potency. This product is THC-Free. All products shipped tamper-evident sealed.

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Shake bottle before use. Take 3-4 drops sublingual (under the tongue). Increase dosage as necessary for desired effects. Use daily. Individual results may vary. Store away from heat, light, and humidity.

Cannabidiol (CBD). Other naturally occuring cannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, flavinoids, and minerals.

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We are not legally able to make any recommendations or guarantees regarding drug tests on THC Free or Full Spectrum products. If that is a concern, we would recommend not consuming any CBD products and/or doing some further research at, before making the decision to consume any CBD. Read our Urinalysis disclaimer here

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We are not legally able to make any recommendations or guarantees regarding drug tests on THC Free or Full Spectrum products. If that is a concern, we would recommend not consuming any CBD products and/or doing some further research at, before making the decision to consume any CBD. Read our Urinalysis disclaimer here

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Avoid Contact with eyes and mucous membranes. Do not apply to open wounds. Stop use if condition worsens or severe skin irritation occurs. If pregnant or breastfeeding, consult a health professional before use.

Aqua, Shea Butter, Cetearyl Alcohol, Cetearyl Glucoside, Tapioca Starch Modified, Aloe Vera, Menthol, Sunflower Seed Oil, Argan Kernel Oil, Coconut Oil, Hemp-derived Cannabidiol, Glycerin, Citric Acid, Organic Rosemary Extract, Xantham Gum, Glyceryl Caprylate, Carpylhydroxamic Acid. Made in the USA.


Uncanna 1000MG BROAD SPECTRUM CBD OIL TINCTURE WHAT IS BROAD SPECTRUM CBD OIL? FULL SPECTRUM CBD OIL..MINUS THE THC! UnCanna uses state of the art extraction technology to ensure a true

Coffee or Die Magazine

By Tim Cooper | October 09, 2019

Coby Cochran, owner of Colorado-based UnCanna , is a former U.S. Army Ranger with 10 years of active duty under his belt. He was also a member of Team 8 in the 2012 Best Ranger Competition. To most, his outward appearance indicated a young, physically active guy who had everything going for him. However, the reality was that Cochran was off the track, riding a southbound train. He was abusing alcohol, suffering from depression and anxiety — essentially dealing with all the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at once.

The situation came to a head while he was still active in 2018 after two of his military buddies killed themselves. Including Cochran’s father, the total number of people in his life who had died from suicide was seven. Motivated by his wife and 2-year-old son, Cochran knew he had to get help. His medical team told him that transitioning out of the military was inevitable.

That transition was an unusually short one — less than six months. He had to develop a plan quickly. At the time, Cochran was heavily medicated: 13 different prescriptions, including opiates, insomnia drugs, antidepressants, traumatic brain injury (TBI) neurological drugs, and even more medications to counteract the side effects from the others.

Coby Cochran as part of the U.S. Army’s 1st Ranger Battalion. Photo courtesy of Coby Cochran.

“The pills almost cost me my life on numerous occasions,” Cochran said. “I mentally hit rock bottom. They took a massive toll on my personal life. I felt like a shadow of the man I once was.”

While participating in a non-Department of Defense (DOD) outpatient program, Cochran learned about cannabidiol, or CBD, from a physician who had been prescribing it to her patients and seeing positive results. Facing the civilian interview process, Cochran was concerned about the potential of failing a drug test but knew he had to fix his life before worrying about a job.

“I was at a point in my life where it was a life-or-death matter,” he said. “I needed to find something that worked. I would have smoked weed at that point if it would have helped.”

CBD is no magical potion, but Cochran credits the hemp-based compound for turning his life around. In six months’ time, he was able to discontinue all of his 13 prescriptions. “Just getting off the meds — you know, the antidepressants that were just completely fogging my mind — was huge,” he said. Cochran was also sleeping soundly and found the pain associated with his migraine headaches to be more manageable. CBD not only gave Cochran a new lease on life, it also provided the direction he needed for his new career in the civilian world.

“I was at a point in my life where it was a life-or-death matter. I needed to find something that worked. I would have smoked weed at that point if it would have helped.”

Cochran had some pre-military experience with business, so starting a company was not a completely foreign task. He began to put together a business plan and research available CBD products. Along the way, Cochran met a couple of guys in Colorado who had 10 years’ experience and were well-established in the CBD industry.

Cochran expressed his desire to start a company that pushed CBD into the veteran community. They were impressed and offered to mentor him through the start-up of his business. By leveraging the relationship with his Colorado contacts and making an emotional pitch to help his fellow veterans, Cochran gained access to a myriad of privileged CBD research data, unavailable to many of his competitors.

After separating from the military in 2018, he moved to Colorado and hit the ground running with start-up capital consisting of his own life savings. UnCanna has since grown organically, without the assistance of outside investors. The timing, however, was nearly perfect as public interest in CBD had been growing exponentially.

U.S. Army veteran and UnCanna founder Coby Cochran used CBD to help systems associated with PTSD. Photo courtesy of Coby Cochran.

Cannabidiol is one of the naturally occurring cannabinoids found in all plants in the cannabis family. While it can be extracted from marijuana, legal CBD comes from the hemp plant, which contains no more than 0.3 percent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the chemical that causes the intoxicating effect of marijuana. By comparison, marijuana averages 5 to 20 percent THC, with some “premium” strains containing 25 to 30 percent. The trace levels of THC in hemp make it impossible to get high from the plant; however, hemp-based CBD has been shown to deliver numerous health benefits.

Hemp, like all plants in the cannabis family, contains nearly 500 compounds. These include:

  • Cannabinoids — THC and CBD among them
  • Terpenes — compounds often used in aromatherapy
  • Flavonoids — the nutrients responsible for the non-green colors exhibited in plants, known for their beneficial antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects
  • Fatty acids — essential nutrients like Omega 3 and Omega 6, shown to speed up the body’s ability to make protein and improve heart health.

Due to the various beneficial ingredients of hemp, most knowledgeable proponents of CBD recommend products that include all of the plant’s naturally occurring compounds. This type of “full spectrum” extraction maximizes the “entourage effect” — the synergistic boost from all the ingredients.

UnCanna hemp farm. Photo courtesy of Coby Cochran.

The CBD industry as we know it today germinated on Dec. 20, 2018 — the date of the 2018 Farm Bill, which passed both houses of Congress by landslide margins. For the first time in history, the federal government finally recognized the difference between hemp and marijuana, and allowed hemp products to move across state borders.

According to Alexander Beadle at , “previous legislation — namely the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act and the 1970 Controlled Substances Act, failed to make any distinction between … [these] plants — as a result, hemp was banned and classified as a Schedule 1 drug alongside cannabis in the same schedule as heroin, LSD and ecstasy. With the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill, that difference has now been officially recognized and the prohibition lifted.”

While the 2018 Farm Bill was the first legislation to make hemp legal everywhere, an earlier Farm Bill in 2014 had set the stage, authorizing states to create small pilot programs for the purpose of growing and studying industrial hemp. These programs required authorization by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and were heavily restricted. However, the 2014 Farm Bill was significant because it gave some very large companies and the federal government a four-year jump on many firms that entered the CBD market after 2018.

UnCanna CBD oil products. Photo courtesy of Coby Cochran.

While the Food & Drug Administration still restricts what companies can and cannot say about the health benefits of CBD, the research is convincing. CBD is generally well-tolerated in humans with minimal side effects and does not seem to be habit forming. According to the World Health Organization, any adverse reactions to CBD seem to be the result of interactions with other medications taken by the patient.

Unlike THC, CBD has no negative impact upon heart rate and blood pressure under normal conditions. In some studies, CBD actually reduced heart rate and blood pressure in stressful situations. (While this can be viewed as a benefit for most patients, those who are taking heart and blood pressure medications should consult a qualified medical professional before taking CBD.)

Long-term effects on the immune system are unclear. Some data suggest immunity can be suppressed at higher concentrations of CBD. However, other data shows immune stimulation occurs at lower dosages.

CBD has been demonstrated as an effective treatment of epilepsy in several clinical trials. There is also preliminary evidence that CBD may be a useful treatment for a number of other medical conditions, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, pain and inflammatory diseases, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Crohn’s, and complications of diabetes. Numerous studies also document the significant anti-inflammatory effect of CBD when it’s prescribed to manage pain. Likewise, many CBD patients have reported significant relief from symptoms caused by anxiety and depression. Still others rely upon the compound to treat sleep disorders like insomnia and restless legs syndrome (RLS).

UnCanna even offers CBD products for pets. Photo courtesy of Coby Cochran.

Given the opiate crisis, rampant alcohol and drug abuse, and the ever-increasing suicide rate inside and outside the veteran community, what is preventing the federal government from lifting the restrictions on CBD? The proponents of cannabidiol are not shy about pointing a finger at the “Big Pharma” lobby, citing these and other trends:

  • Lower percentages of antidepressant drug use in states where medical marijuana is legal
  • The internet and social media making patients much more aware of the dangers and negative side effects of many prescription medications
  • Corporate, Big Pharma lobbyists applying for cannabinoid-based drug patents for medications to treat a variety of ailments, including epilepsy and multiple sclerosis

Another contributing factor is the widespread reliance upon urinalysis technology for drug screening. Nowhere is this more prevalent than the U.S. military. Due to trace levels of THC in CBD, it is technically possible for the supplement to trigger a false positive for marijuana use. An official recognition of the therapeutic value of CBD by the federal government would likely force the military (and other government agencies) to completely overhaul policies and procedures related to drug screening — no small task.

Individuals forced to undergo drug testing as a condition of employment have genuine concerns about the preferred, full-spectrum CBD products. Is it likely the trace levels of THC in hemp would trigger a “hot” (positive) urine test? CBD manufacturers — UnCanna included — are careful about answering that question one way or the other.

Hemp plants. Adobe Stock Photo.

While 0.3 percent THC should not be enough to flag a positive result, there have been claims to the contrary. In many of these cases, evidence suggests those making such claims were supplementing CBD with other forms of cannabis. However, drug testing procedures and equipment vary — so the truth is, there’s simply no way to guarantee clean test results. For this reason, many CBD companies commonly offer two alternative formulations: broad-spectrum and isolate. Broad-spectrum products are essentially full-spectrum CBD without the THC, while isolate is an ultra-refined extraction that yields 99.9 percent pure CBD. The isolate extraction process removes all plant matter, including the THC, terpenes, waxes, and more.

How can consumers be certain CBD products contain (or omit) the ingredients as advertised? Unfortunately, the “buyer beware” disclaimer applies. Content and purity are only as good as the manufacturer’s extraction process, and, due to the lack of federal regulation, the only way to confirm quality is to do your own research.

“Ninety percent of [the players in the] CBD industry offer max product of 1,000 milligrams under a celebrity flash brand that has a bunch of money thrown at it with a large network of distributors and stores,” Cochran said. “These products are low potency, not lab tested, and usually overpriced — but they have great marketing and a large affiliate base behind them.” Most of the full-spectrum products available through retail outlets is the result of poor extraction technique — there are low-level traces (if any) of other beneficial cannabinoids and hemp plant compounds.

Once FDA standards are in place, the hope is that the DOD will at least lift restrictions on THC-free CBD products.

“The industry is exploding,” Cochran continued. “But most of the stuff coming out is overpriced product that has no connection [to] the actual industry leaders who have been doing [the real work] and establishing standard pricing. The math is easy. You break it down, cost per milligram, and you can see how companies are scamming you.”

“UnCanna is a veteran-owned and -operated, premium, small batch CBD company,” reads the company website. “Our mission, research, and honest advocacy [for veterans] make us stand out from the crowd. All of this with no celebrity upcharge, or gimmick products.”

It’s one thing to claim you are an industry leader, but it’s quite another to lead by example. UnCanna’s food-grade processing facility is already poised to meet or exceed anticipated future requirements mandated by the Food & Drug Administration. Unlike some competitors who are comfortable flying under the radar, UnCanna fully supports regulation within the CBD industry to protect consumers from “bad actors.” Cochran believes that regulation will sweep these less-than-scrupulous snake-oil retailers away because they won’t have the infrastructure to meet compliance requirements.

UnCanna bottling facility. Photo courtesy of Coby Cochran.

Furthermore, Uncanna uses a third-party lab to test samples from every batch prior to sale, ensuring the safety, purity, and potency of its products. Certificates of authenticity are available to customers.

The voluntary commitment to regulated quality in an unregulated industry should give UnCanna customers confidence in the product. However, for those who need another reason to support this company, consider its stated commitment to work with the government to remove hemp-based CBD restrictions for active members of the military. From the very beginning, Cochran’s primary goal was to help his fellow brothers and sisters — active duty and veterans alike — who are dealing with PTSD, traumatic injuries, and other related issues. UnCanna has been quietly documenting feedback collected from detailed customer surveys.

“These surveys request detailed feedback,” Cochran explained. “‘Are you a combat veteran?’ ‘Do you have a Purple Heart?’ ‘Do have a traumatic brain injury?’ ‘Do you suffer from anxiety, depression, PTSD, or chronic pain?’ We are compiling this data for eventual delivery to Congress.”

The customer surveys are a critical component to UnCanna’s future pitch to the government. However, making that pitch prior to FDA regulation of the CBD industry would fall on deaf ears. So, for now, UnCanna will quietly continue to collect data to strengthen its case. Once FDA standards are in place, the hope is that the DOD will at least lift restrictions on THC-free CBD products. If that doesn’t happen, Cochran plans to petition the White House and push the effort through its newsletter, social media platforms, and professional networks.

UnCanna oil products. Photo courtesy of Coby Cochran.

“If the [DOD] saw the data that I look at daily,” he said, “they would see that [CBD] can save lives. Period. I’m tired of burying guys.”

UnCanna’s baseline CBD oil product is 2,500 milligrams, available in full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, and isolate formulations. These products are designed to be a monthly supply, based upon two 30-milligram doses per day. Cochran said his research shows that this dosage and regimen yield the most positive results.

The company also offers full-spectrum and isolate topical salves, as well as an isolate powder that can be mixed with food and beverages. There’s even a 600-milligram oil formula for pets. Additional products for oral delivery, including CBD soft gels, are under development.

You don’t have to be a combat veteran to reap the benefits of CBD — people from all walks of life experience depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and insomnia. With the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, CBD has finally come out of hiding and is readily available to the public.

Unfortunately, as is the case for any supplement not regulated by the FDA, patients are largely left on their own to find reputable CBD products. UnCanna aims to make that process easier. In a very short period of time, owner Coby Cochran has channeled his personal struggles and firsthand success with CBD into a business that provides hope and healing to many satisfied customers, including other veterans in crisis.

CBD is no magical potion, but Coby Cochran credits the hemp-based compound for turning his life around — it not only got him off 13 medications, it gave him a career path.


washington state cannabis license

Marijuana Licensing

If your potential business will be involved with the production, processing, or retailing of marijuana then you need a marijuana license.

Fee and Description Sheet: English | Korean | Spanish
For more information on Marijuana Fee’s and Discriptions please visit the Business Licensing Service’s Marijuana Web Page.

New Applications

  • Producer license descriptions and fees – Not accepting new applications
  • Processor license descriptions and fees – Not accepting new applications
  • Retailer license description and fees – Not accepting new applications
  • Transportation License
  • Marijuana Research License
  • Cooperatives Registration Application:English | Korean | Spanish

Change Applications – Use these forms to make changes to an existing license
Please mail applications to the Liquor and Cannabis Board – PO Box 43098, Olympia, WA 98504-3098

Note: If your application is pending, these forms do not apply to you. If you have any questions please call Customer Service at 360-664-1600 [email protected]..

All fees are non-refundable. Make check(s) payable to WSLCB.

Business Licensing Services Applications – These changes must be started through BLS
These applications must be mailed to BLS, who will then send the application for continued processing to the LCB. This stage of the process can vary in the length of time that it takes. After the application is assigned to a Licensing Specialist they will contact you to discuss the next steps in the application process.

A marijuana license is an endorsement on your Business License issued by the Washington State Department of Revenue (DOR) Business Licensing Service. You must complete the Business License Application even if you already have a Business License, along with a Liquor and Cannabis Board Marijuana Addendum.

If you are forming a corporation or limited liability company (LLC), you must register with the Washington Secretary of State’s (SOS) office before filing an application with BLS. The Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board (WSLCB) will not issue a license to a corporation or LLC that is not registered with the SOS. Be sure to include the UBI number issued by the SOS for all license applications and filings.

Note: SOS filing fees are non-refundable and all information received by SOS is public record.

You may need additional local, state and federal licenses for your business that are not covered under the Business License Application. There may be other mandatory permitting/licensing requirements from other regulatory agencies that need to be fulfilled before starting construction. For more information use the link Other Regulatory Requirements.

To receive this document in an alternate format, please call 1-800-647-7706. Teletype (TTY) users may use the Washington Relay Service by calling 711. BLS 700-306 (10/13/15).

*Additional forms or documents may be required by the individual agency.

Marijuana Licensing If your potential business will be involved with the production, processing, or retailing of marijuana then you need a marijuana license. Fee and Description Sheet:

FAQs on Marijuana

Frequently Asked Questions about Marijuana

Subtopics (links)


When can I buy marijuana legally?

Recreational marijuana sales to the public began July, 8 2014.

What is a license?

The law creates three separate tiers: marijuana producer, marijuana processor, and marijuana retailer. Specific license requirements are detailed in the rules which are available here. The best way to keep up to date on the process is to register for email notifications on the WSLCB website

How much does a license cost?

The law establishes a license application fee at $266 and a $1,062 renewal fee for each of the three licenses; marijuana producer, marijuana processor and marijuana retailer.

Can I hold all three license types?

Having all three licenses is not permitted. A licensee may hold both a producer and a processor license simultaneously. The initiative does not allow a producer and/or processor to also be a retailer.

How many producer and processor licenses will be issued?

No limit. The LCB opened a 30 day window in November 2013 where anyone could apply, and qualified applicants will receive licenses.

Can I grow my own marijuana now? Can I sell my homegrown marijuana?

Home grown marijuana for recreational use, as well as sale, remains illegal. Recreational use marijuana must be purchased from a state-licensed retailer.

Retail Stores

Are there restrictions on where marijuana businesses can locate?

You cannot set up a store within 1000 feet of any elementary or secondary school, playground, recreation center or facility, child care center, public park, public transit center, library, or game arcade that allows minors to enter. Local authorities will also be notified and have an opportunity to object.

Note: Recent legislation allows local governments to pass an ordinance to allow for a reduction in the 1000-foot buffer requirements to 100 feet around all entities except elementary and secondary schools and public playgrounds.

Are the retail outlets run by the state?

Stores are licensed and regulated by the WSLCB but are private-sector businesses.

Can I incorporate marijuana sales into my existing business?

No. Retail outlets may only sell marijuana, marijuana concentrates, marijuana infused products and marijuana paraphernalia.

Can customers consume in a retail store?

No. On-premise consumption is not allowed.

Are there any restrictions on advertising?

Are non-Washington residents able to purchase marijuana?

Yes, but the marijuana products are to be consumed in Washington.

Public Safety/Criminal

Note: The WSLCB is a licensing and regulatory agency and does not handle criminal prosecutions

What is the WSLCB doing to ensure public safety, especially preventing access by minors?

Public safety is central to the WSLCB mission. As expected by the voters, the rules we created include minimums for security, preventing minors’ access to marijuana and other provisions. Educating retailers and preventing minors access to marijuana is an important part of our enforcement work today.

What is the DUI provision?

The initiative sets a per se DUI limit of “delta-9” THC levels at greater than or equal to 5 nanograms per milliliter of blood (5 ng/mL). State and local law enforcement agencies are tasked with enforcing the DUI limit.

Can I still be drug tested now that marijuana is legal

The law does not address the topic of drug testing but it is our understanding that employers may still conduct drug testing at their discretion. Since marijuana is illegal under federal law institutions that receive federal funds will still be subject to mandated testing. Organizations such as the NFL and NBA have issued statements that marijuana consumption is a violation of their conduct policy and they intend to continue testing for it.

The initiative says I cannot consume marijuana in public. What is the definition of “in public?”

The law states that it is unlawful to open/consume a package of marijuana or marijuana infused product in view of the general public.

Can marijuana purchased legally in Washington be transported to other states?

No. Marijuana and marijuana products are to be consumed in Washington State.

Federal Government

What is the federal government going to do?

On August 29, 2013 Attorney General Eric Holder called both Governors Jay Inslee and John Hickenlooper (Colorado) to outline the federal government’s guidance on legalized marijuana. That guidance was also outlined in a memo which focuses on eight points of federal emphasis such as youth access and public safety which the LCB’s rules address. The regulatory system for marijuana, and the rules written by the Board appears to meet those eight points. The memo does not change federal law. Governor Inslee’s office is maintaining an open dialogue with the federal government and the WSLCB is moving forward to carry out the expectations of the agency under the new law.

Since marijuana is legal in Washington can the federal government still prosecute me?

Yes. Washington’s system of legalized marijuana does not preempt federal law. Presently Washington State residents involved in marijuana production /retailing could still be subject to prosecution if the federal government chooses to do so.

Can the federal government confiscate my assets?

Yes. Confiscation of assets is one of the enforcement tactics available to federal authorities.

What about industrial hemp? Does this create a new market for hemp products?

No. The law is focused on legalizing the recreational use of marijuana. The law modifies the definition of “marijuana” to include only cannabis greater than 0.3 percent THC concentration. Cannabis under this limit – industrial hemp – is not treated as recreational “marijuana.”

WSLCB Hiring

How can I apply for a job with WSLCB?

All job openings will be posted in the careers section of our website. The actual application process is done through Visit their website and fill out your profile in advance so you are ready when opportunities become available.

Does the WSLCB drug test new employees?

The WSLB does not drug test administrative staff at the time of hiring. However, we do test potential enforcement staff for drugs, including marijuana. The WSLCB is a drug-free workplace. All employees are expected to not be impaired at work. Should a reasonable suspicion arise that an employee is impaired, that person may be tested.

I’m an expert in the field of marijuana how can I be involved in the process?

Our rule-making system is a public process and we engage citizens along the way. Like hiring, the best way to keep up to date on the process is to register for email notifications. We will be sending out timelines and requests for public comment using email.


How much tax revenue will marijuana sales generate?

You can find the most recent financial data on our Frequently Requested Lists page.

How is it going to be taxed?

Effective July 1, 2015, tax reforms defined in HB 2136 change the existing marijuana excise tax structure. A 37 percent marijuana excise tax must now be collected exclusively at the retail level. In addition, B&O taxes on the production and local retail sales taxes apply.

Marijuana tax rates are too high, can you lower them?

WSLCB officials do not have the authority to change the taxes. Any change to the tax structure would have to come from the legislature.

Is CBD oil exempt from the 37% marijuana excise tax?

CBD oil that is sold at retail from within the state regulated system is subject to excise tax.

CBD products could be considered in the medically compliant product category if it meets the terms established by the Department of Health as medically compliant. When sold to a registered patient or registered caregiver, CBD compliant product in the medical system is sales tax exempt, not excise tax exempt.

The CBD import law that allows imported CBD to be used as an additive does not provide a tax exemption, as that product can only be added to other product already within the state system.


Is product liability insurance required?

Commercial general liability or commercial umbrella insurance (if necessary for adequate coverage) is required for all licensees under WAC 314-55-082. Under subsection (1), licensees must at all times carry and maintain commercial general liability insurance and if necessary, commercial umbrella insurance for bodily injury and property damage arising out of licensed activities. This insurance shall cover such claims as may be caused by any act, omission, or negligence of the licensee or its officers, agents, representatives, assigns, or servants. The insurance shall also cover bodily injury, including disease, illness and death, and property damage arising out of the licensee’s premises/operations, products, and personal injury. The limits of liability insurance shall not be less than one million dollars.

Commercial general liability or commercial umbrella insurancecoverage would likely cover instances of product liability claims. Separate product liability coverage is not required under the rule so long as the commercial liability or umbrella coverage is sufficient. More information about insurance coverage for marijuana businesses is available at the Office of Insurance Commissioner’s website.

Should a producer or processor add a retailer to their insurance certificate?

No, each licensee should have their own insurance coverage for their own activities. Adding a retailer to a producer/processor’s insurance certificatewould mean double coverage on products/activities and is not a common business practice and would be in conflict with the prohibitions in WAC 314-055-018.

FAQs on Marijuana Frequently Asked Questions about Marijuana Subtopics (links) Licenses When can I buy marijuana legally? Recreational marijuana sales to the public began


what to do with male cannabis plants

How to Pick Male Plants and Make Cannabis Seeds

Why Every Home Grower Should Make Seeds (At Least Once)

I encourage growers to make seeds for themselves. A lot of people have been asking how, so I put together these basic tips. Hopefully, it helps a lot of people and is fairly straightforward. This isn’t meant to make you a breeder or share all my techniques or secrets, this is to familiarize you with the process of creating seeds.

It’s easy to make your own cannabis seeds at home!

It’s a shame that many grow books tell you only to throw away your males. New growers may not know, but anyone who’s grown for even just a few years gets to the point where they wish they still had something they grew in the past, which is no longer available in seed or clone for whatever reason. The older you get the more it happens. Seed lines disappear entirely once they run out, and due to people not making their own. It’s good to be self-sufficient.

While it’s always fun to check out the hard work of your favorite breeders and their strains, it’s equally as important to pollinate a branch or two for yourself here and there and see what magic you can create or preserve. Please share this article if it helps or inspires you. Big agriculture is coming to the cannabis growing world and has the ability to change the plant forever once contamination happens, just like in the veggie world. We are losing genetic diversity fast as thousands of unique strains are lost. Please do your part if you are passionate!

Make your own seeds to save special or unique genetics

How to Make Your Own Cannabis Seeds at Home

These are basic starting points for the home grower. I believe every person who grows cannabis needs to have this skill. Every strain goes away over time when people don’t make more seeds. Growers should know how to make their own seeds for preservation and sustainability. These skills can go a long way. The precursor to serious breeding is the basic technique of creating the seed.

1.) Grow Male Plants

Male plants can be grown in very basic conditions in an isolated space, then flowered for pollen. Males can be started flowering next to females with a close watch for the first week or two, but be careful and remove them before pollen sacks form, bursting open and pollinating everything.

Branches can be cut off and put into a cup of water on a windowsill or under a CFL bulb, even under veg light cycle once they are in bloom. Pollen can be collected within a week from these branches, saving lots of space. Males can also be cloned or flowered very small based on your needs.

Best, however, is flowering the males in their own tent or space. With a carbon filter and negative pressure, and careful practices, you can avoid spreading pollen to unwanted spaces. The longer you flower a male out past its initial beginning release of pollen, the more of its flowering traits you will see! (More on best male plant selection below)

A beautiful male cannabis plant

2.) Collect Pollen

Pollen can be collected by tapping a budding branch gently over a piece of paper. Pollen will spread easily in the air, so make sure to turn off all fans. Visit males only after tending to female plants so you don’t accidentally bring any stray pollen on your clothes or hair!

A male plant right as pollen sacs start opening

3.) Pollinate Buds

Take out your female to be pollinated or shut off all circulation fans. Gently apply pollen to a labeled branch. The pollen must meet the white flowering hairs to create seeds. Week 3-5 is best to pollinate, and you can do a single bud or branch per plant and keep the rest seedless.

Every pollinated branch should be labeled properly, your memory will not last as you think it will. A proper branch label includes dates, strain names, breeder/sources, and has the female listed first and male listed second. An example label looks like this: 4/20/2015 – Star Pupil (Mass Medical Strains) x Prayer Tower Sativa 9 (Bodhi Seeds) and the label should be kept with the seeds when they are finished. As years go by, you will be thankful for the dates and breeder information, which can escape our memory on occasion.

Overhead shot of a seeded cannabis plant. Strain is “Star Pupil”

4.) Deactivate Stray Pollen

Water generally deactivates pollen, wash clothes and shower if needed after handling. 3+ hours after pollination, the plant can be sprayed down with water to deactivate stray pollen and can be brought back into grow room and fans turned back on.

Avoid spreading pollen unintentionally. It can get everywhere!

A male cannabis plant exploding with pollen. Strain: Prayer Tower Sativa (below)

5.) Collect Seeds

Seeds are done in 2-6 weeks and should be dried in the bud when the plant is harvested. Seeds should be sproutable within one month of drying.

Female buds become swollen with seeds

A cannabis seed peaking out

What strains should I use?

Any strain with traits that you like, which speaks to you, or seems like a good cross, means your intuition is telling you something. Starting with stabilized or homogeneous lines is always a benefit. Certain genes such as Cookies, OG, and Diesels, are full of hermaphrodites and should be used with caution, only to be bred with if they are really your #1 passion. Follow your heart.

Crossing two unrelated strains for the first time is called an F1. Crossing a brother and sister F1 of the same strain creates an F2, and so on. Selections play a huge role in what the outcome will be. Making F2 seeds of an F1 you purchased, will not give you the same seeds. Rather, you will see new phenotypes resembling some of the parents and their parents, etc. With huge potential to find new special plants within.

Many combinations will work great, and some will not. If you fail, try again, selecting new parents. Each combination is unique. A and B might work great together, and C and D might work well together, there’s still a possibility that A and C combine to create junk. Every parental combo is unique!

If you see a unique trait that you like, make seeds!

Selection Techniques

Female Plants

Selecting a good female is easy, flower female plants from seed and again from clone to test stability. Smoke test is important. A potential mother plant should have all the high-quality traits that matter to you. Hermaphroditic plants are to be avoided.

Female plants to be pollinated should have all your ideal traits. Use only your best females.

Male Plants

Selecting a male, you have to use your senses a lot. The ones who grow best and smell best are a good starting point. Structure and root growth are important. Hollow stems may indicate high THC potential. Cut the top off a couple nodes down and find out. First showing or fastest flowering males are generally discarded. Very slow blooming late males are often times more recessive although not always. I like them. Males will start to drop pollen before they are “done” flowering enough to see their true traits. As a beginner, you can use the pollen at any stage, but those doing real selections are advised to always flower your males for weeks after the pollen starts.

For male selections, a strain you’ve grown before and enjoyed the females is a safe starting point.

Watch for resin production, look at how the flower clusters stack and produce. The male flowers form similarly to female flowers, large yield potential is often apparent in largely formed male clusters that can look almost like female buds from a distance. The more males you have to choose from, the more fun you will have!

Male plants can be a lot of fun to grow, too. Just like the females of the genetics they come from, they all have their own characteristics and unique traits. Once you get into “hunting males” you could get hooked! Some of my prized male selections from over the years are shown here. You’ll see resin production and traits of large floral clusters, as well as unique coloration!

This male Weapon X cannabis plant is about to pop!

Male Blue Magoo BX looking trippy under LEDs

Strain: Mr. E Reversed

For more advanced breeding selections, I recommend starting ideally a few hundred seeds. (For beginners, as many as you can is great, will help you find the best ones you can. Use your intuition!) Plants can be weeded out every few weeks selecting only the best contenders to flower out, and a lot can be achieved in a spare tent or closet this way, while still selecting through large populations! Clones of a prized breeding male may be kept in veg the same way females are, to be used again and again once their offspring are proven good! This is how a breeder can create the same batch of seeds for years and years, by using the exact same parents held in clone form.


These tips are just the beginning, and the purpose isn’t to teach you how to breed, but to teach you how to learn your own path and style of creating seeds and preserving our very special plant. The seeds you create will always be a very special grow for YOU.

Making your own seeds is more important than ever. We must do our part to preserve the natural genetic diversity of this healing plant as it has evolved for millions of years. Home growing is an important skill as commercial and medical cannabis is increasingly full of toxins and scary new technology. Please grow responsibly with love.

About the Author

Star Pupil strives to copy nature while incorporating breeding techniques and plant knowledge passed down from generations of experienced growers. Mass Medical Strains is located in western Massachusetts and all breeding and growing methods are 100% organic. Each and every plant is grown and harvested with wholesome intentions and positive vibes.

  • Mass Medical Strains Website
  • Instagram account (Note from Nebula Haze: Check out their Instagram to see new pictures of all their strains!)

How to Pick Male Plants and Make Cannabis Seeds Why Every Home Grower Should Make Seeds (At Least Once) I encourage growers to make seeds for themselves. A lot of people have been asking how,

Male vs Female Cannabis Plants

Table of Contents

Marijuana Life Stages & Gender: Only Female Cannabis Plants Make Buds

Did you know there are both male and female marijuana plants? Yes, marijuana plants show gender, and the sex matters a lot to the grower.

That’s because only female plants produce buds. How do you grow female plants?

Regular marijuana seeds will be 50% male, and 50% female. That means half of the seeds will be unusable as far as growing buds.

One way around this is to purchased feminized seeds online. These seeds are available from all reputable online seedbanks, and the plants produced by these seeds are always female.

You can also make your own feminized seeds, but you have to start with two known female plants.

When do marijuana plants reveal their gender?

Cannabis plants go through two stages of life, the “vegetative” stage and the “flowering stage.”

They first go through the vegetative life stage, which you can sort of consider its “childhood” since the plant is only focusing on growing bigger and taller, and gender doesn’t matter. At the beginning of this stage you usually can’t tell what the plant’s gender is.

However, once the plant is about 6 weeks old, it will usually show signs of “pre-flowers” which will alert you to the gender before the beginning of the flowering stage.

Pre-Flowers usually reveal the gender around week 6 from seed

Otherwise you must wait for the flowering stage

Next, cannabis plants switch to the flowering stage which means they stop growing bigger and taller, and instead spend all their effort growing flowers (the buds we want are flowers!). The flowering stage is like the “adult” stage of a cannabis plant since at this point it’s only interested in adult stuff like growing their male and female parts, then pollinating 🙂 In the flowering stage, plants start growing buds or pollen sacs in earnest. The buds we want are female flowers, so growers generally only want to grow female plants.

Growers Want Female Cannabis Plants – These Produce Bud

Regular Marijuana plants reveal their gender in two situations:

After spending a long time in the vegetative stage – some strains/plants will show preflowers (pistils for girls and “balls” for boys) during the vegetative stage if they grow old enough, even when they are constantly kept under a vegetative light schedule. For example, clones can come from plants that are several years old, so you’ll see a lot of clones have female pistils showing, yet will not continue to flower any more than that until after they’ve been switched to a Flowering (12-12) light schedule

Otherwise, all remaining plants will reveal their gender in the first 1-3 weeks after lights are switched to 12-12, and plants enter the flowering stage of life.

Diagram Showing What Pre-Flowers Look Like
Male pre-flowers on left – Female pre-flowers on right

Female Marijuana Plant Pictures

Female marijuana plants take a bit longer than males to show their first signs after being changed over to flowering.

Female marijuana plants start showing one or two wispy white hairs where their buds are going to start forming.

They usually first show up where the main stem connects to the individual nodes or ‘branches’.

If a female plant is kept in the vegetative stage long enough (the length of time varies depending on the strain and conditions), then she will start showing the first sign of female hairs even before you move the plant into the flowering stage by changing the light schedule.

If you see wispy white hairs appearing on your plant like the ones pictured below, then you know you have a female plant.

Click on thumbnails for larger picture

In this pic, you can see white pistils emerging from the calyxes. Female pistils are white and wispy, never green.

This pre-flower doesn’t have a pistil sticking out at first, but the shape helps tell you it’s a female plant. If you’re not sure about gender after spotting a pre-flower, it’s a good idea to wait and see for a little while, just to see if a white hair appears (which means it’s definitely a girl)

Adult Female Cannabis Plant Pictures

Those buds turn into this!

Male Marijuana Plant Pictures

Male plants have grape-like balls which form and fill with pollen. The balls will first show up a week or two after changing the plants over to the flowering stage. If the male is allowed to continue growing, eventually these pollen sacs will burst open and spill pollen everywhere.

A small male pre-flower – this is what male plants look like when they first reveal their gender

These male pre-flowers are basically immature pollen sacs. When the plant starts flowering, they will grow and turn into bunches that almost look like grapes.

Click on thumbnails for larger picture

Uncertain pre-flower – ended up being female!

Sometimes it takes a day or two for a female pre-flower to release her first pistil, and the female calyx can look like the beginning of a pollen sac. Generally the more “pointy” ones tend to be female, but sometimes you have to wait and see a few more flowers to know for sure.

Marijuana plants go through 2 life stages: Vegetative and Flowering

Quick Key to Light Schedules For Photoperiod (Non-Autoflowering) Strains

This key breaks down some of the terms used in the article below such as “24-0″ or 12-12”

Vegetative – Indoor cannabis plants kept on these light schedules will display only vegetative growth

18-6 – 18 Hours Light / 6 Hours Darkness each Day
24-0 – 24 Hours Light / 0 Hours Darkness each Day

Flowering – Indoor cannabis plants on this light schedule will start growing flowers (buds)

12-12 – 12 Hours Light / 12 Hours Darkness each Day

* Most indoor growers use a timer to turn their lights on and off automatically.

The first stage, “Vegetative” begins when they first sprout, at the beginning of their life.

Most growers give their plants 18-24 hours of light a day during the vegetative stage.

When a plant is about half the final size you want it to be, you should change it over to the “Flowering” stage.

The second life stage, “Flowering,” is the stage your plant will remain in until harvest..

You get marijuana plants start flowering (making buds) by changing your light schedule to 12-12.

That means you use an electric timer to automatically shine your grow lights for 12 hours a day, with 12 hours of uninterrupted TOTAL darkness during the plant’s “night period.”

Marijuana plants should reveal the first signs of their gender within 2-3 weeks after being changed to 12-12.

How Light Schedules Affect Marijuana Life Stages

Marijuana plants have an internal process where they can detect how long they receive uninterrupted darkness each day.

In the wild, as the days get shorter and nights get longer, the marijuana plant “realizes” that winter is coming and will start budding/flowering as it approaches the end of it’s lifecycle.

When growing marijuana outdoors, a grower doesn’t need to do anything to induce flowering because the sun will take care of things on its own. All you need to do is make sure your plant isn’t directly under a street light or other light source, so that the plant receives complete darkness at night.

However, when growing marijuana indoors, a marijuana gardener will have to “fool” their plants into thinking winter is coming to induce flowering and kickstart the creation of buds.

This is done by changing the plant’s light schedule to 12-12, where the weed plants gets 12 hours of light a day and 12 hours of total darkness.

It’s easier to ensure the plant gets the 12 full hours of darkness each night when the start and end time for your lights to turn on and off is exactly the same each day. This is why most growers end up getting a timer to turn their lights on and off automatically.

I tend to set my timer in flowering to shine line from 7pm-7am. This gives me time to check on my plants at night when the lights first come on, and I can also check them quickly in the morning before I go to work. It also keeps things cooler since the lights are on at night. Some people (like myself) also get discounts on electricity that’s used at night.

But ANY 12 hour dark period will work, as long as you prevent your plant from getting light leaks during their “night.”

In fact, with marijuana plants, the length of night period, not the length of day period, seems to make the biggest difference. This makes sense if you consider that in the wild, a stormy or cloudy day could shorten the light period a plant receives, but few things in the wild will interrupt the darkness of night.

This has been experimentally verified by some out-of-the-box thinkers. They gave marijuana plants different amounts of light and dark, then watched what happened.

What they found is that a marijuana plant will stay flowering as long as she gets 12+ hours of darkness on a regular basis. The length of day period didn’t seem to matter at all. In fact, you could give plants 12 hours of dark followed by 24 hours of light, on a regular basis, and plants would continue to flower as long as their darkness was uninterrupted for 12 hours at a time.

Check out my marijuana grow light guide for more info about picking out the right grow lights for your situation!

Photoperiod dependent strains vs. auto-flowering strains

So all strains of cannabis that respond to light in this way (where the light period effects what stage they’re in) are called “Photoperiod dependent” strains.

“Auto-flowering” marijuana strains pretty much ignore how much light they get each day. Generally you don’t run into these unless you buy them particularly from a cannabis seed bank.

Marijuana plants have a gender: Is my plant Male or Female?

(Some marijuana plants can also be hermaphrodites, which means they display both male and female parts on the same plant)

Most growers prefer to grow female plants, as only female plant produce buds/flowers.

Note: Once the plant is about 6 weeks old from seed, it will usually show signs of “pre-flowers” which will alert you to the gender before the beginning of the flowering stage.

Pre-Flowers usually reveal the gender around week 6 from seed, or you can wait until the plant switches to the flowering stage.

After 2-3 weeks of the 12-12 light schedule, most marijuana plants will reveal the first signs of their gender (they either are a female plant and start growing buds, YAY! or they are a male plant and start growing balls, NO!).

Why do I not want male marijuana plants?

Only a female marijuana plant makes flowers/buds that contain a usable amount of THC. Male marijuana plants only make pollen sacs that they use to fertilize the females. Most growers will throw away any male plants that they encounter to keep them from fertilizing the female plants. If your female plants do get fertilized, they will use all their energy to produce seeds instead of making buds. This is good if you want seeds, but you will run into the same problem since half of the seeds will also be male.

If you would like to start a breeding program to make your own hybrids, I recommend using a method that creates all-female (feminized) seeds so that you don’t waste time having to identify and throw out male plants.

Getting clones of female marijuana plants or buying feminized seeds online from a seed bank are other ways you can ensure that all your marijuana plants are female.

If you don’t have a choice of seeds, and some of your seeds may be male (like if you just found seeds) than you will want to get your plants to reveal their gender right away so you don’t have to waste time and energy on male plants.

For most marijuana strains, the male plants don’t produce usable amounts of THC, so most growers toss them on sight. Unfortunately, 50% of all regular seeds will become male plants.

These male plants can also impregnate your female plants, which causes them not to produce as many buds, so unless you’re breeding, destroy male plants as soon as you notice them growing grape-like balls where their buds would normally be.

A vigilant grower can carefully watch their plants and remove males when they develop the first signs of pollen sacs.

How to identify female plants if starting out with regular bagseed?

You don’t have to wait for the flowering stage! Below we’ll share two tactics growers use to identify gender in the vegetative stage.

Tactic 1: Preflowers let you identify plants in week 3-6 from seed

Pre-Flowers reveal the gender of your plant by around week 6 from seed, and as early as 3 weeks from seed for some plants.

In this area you’ll find pre-flowers nestled where the “joints” of the plant are.

Tactic 2: Taking a clone and flowering it

The following method can help you identify gender for plants that are taking a while to show their pre-flowers.

If you’re just growing 1, 2, or 3 plants, it can be heartbreaking to find out all your plants are male, and you need to start over in order to make buds.

When marijuana plants are seedlings (or when they’re just seeds), there’s no way to tell which plants are male and which plants are female.

You have to “wait and see.” Male marijuana plants develop pollen sacs (look like little balls or nuts). Female marijuana plants start growing white hairs that develop into the marijuana buds (sensimilla) that contain THC and other cannabinoids. Lots of pictures of male and female parts above.

However, you may want to be more proactive and get rid of the male plants before they enter the flowering stage so you don’t have to waste the time and energy in caring for plants that you will eventually get rid of. If so, then you can use to following technique to identify and remove all the males from your grow.

How to Determine Sex of a Marijuana Plant

You can wait until your plants naturally show the first signs of their gender and then remove all the males, but that means you have to watch the plants closely. You also will waste time and energy growing plants only to find out that some or all are male and have to throw them away. If you want to be more proactive and get rid of all male plants right away, then use this technique.

Take a clone from the unverified marijuana plant

Label both the clone and the mother plant so you know which clone came from which corresponding mother. If you don’t label them clearly, then all your effort will go to waste!

Once the clones have established roots, change just the clones into flowering mode by providing them with a light schedule of 12 hours on, 12 hours off

The clones should start revealing their gender in a week or two. Males will start developing balls and females will start developing white hairs. Click on the pictures below to see some examples of male and female plants.

Once you have determined the gender of your clones, you should make sure you throw away any corresponding male plants.

Learn about marijuana life stages and gender. When does the plant start flowering? How can you tell if your plant is a boy or a girl? What…


time magazine medical marijuana

Here’s What Science Says About Medical Marijuana

T here’s a big difference between anecdotal evidence and scientific proof, and the field of medical marijuana research is filled with more of the former than the latter—in part because marijuana is notoriously difficult to study because it’s classified as a schedule-1 drug.

Scientists led by Penny Whiting from University Hospitals Bristol in the U.K. report in JAMA that there is only moderate-quality evidence supporting the benefits of medical marijuana, and only for certain conditions. The majority of studies involving medical marijuana are of lesser quality and therefore more likely to be biased and provide unreliable results.

In all, Whiting and her colleagues analyzed 79 randomized trials, the gold standard in medical research in which volunteers are randomly assigned to take a cannabis-related product or a placebo. The studies evaluated marijuana’s ability to relieve a range of symptoms including nausea from chemotherapy, loss of appetite among HIV positive patients, multiple sclerosis spasms, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, psychosis and Tourette syndrome. Most of the studies showed improvements among the participants taking the cannabinoid products over those using placebo, but in many, the scientists admitted that they could not be sure that the effect wasn’t simply due to chance since the association was not statistically significant.

The strongest trials supported cannabinoids’ ability to relieve chronic pain, while the least reliable evidence involved things like nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy, sleep disturbances and Tourette syndrome. Cannabinoids were, however, connected to more adverse events such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation and hallucinations than placebo.

Summing up the state of the evidence, Whiting and her colleagues write that “Further large, robust, randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the effects of cannabinoids, particularly on weight gain in patients with HIV-AIDS, depression, sleep disorders, anxiety disorders, psychosis, glaucoma, and Tourette syndrome.”

That puts patients who try medical marijuana products at a crossroads — in 23 states and Washington, DC, laws allow doctors to recommend cannabis products for their patients for medical reasons. But with little in the way of solid scientific evidence for which products works best, and in which doses, it’s up to the patients to adopt trial-and-error to figure out which, if any cannabinoids help to relieve their symptoms.

Adding to the confusion for patients, another study published in the same JAMA issue shows that medicinal marijuana food products, which include things such as candies, brownies and teas, aren’t often labeled correctly when it comes to their most active cannabis ingredient, and that the amounts are inconsistent. Ryan Vandrey, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and his colleagues evaluated the contents of 75 products from 47 different brands purchased at marijuana dispensaries in San Francisco, Los Angeles and Seattle, where medicinal marijuana use is legal. When they analyzed them for their content of THC and cannabinoids, the two most concentrated chemicals found in marijuana, they found wildly divergent amounts from what was noted on the products’ labels. Among them, only 17% were accurately labeled, with 23% of the products containing more of these compounds than listed, and 60% containing less than advertised. The labels noted that anywhere from 2 mg to 1000 mg of these agents were in the products, while the lab-based analysis revealed readings as low as 1mg to as high as 1237 mg. “When I have a health condition, and need to go buy my medicine, I want to make sure I know what I’m getting,” says Vandrey. “I want to make sure the dose I buy is the same today and the same the next time and the same the next time I buy it. I want reliability and accuracy so I don’t end up with problems.”

But medical marijuana products, he says, aren’t regulated by the same system that vets other pharmaceutical drugs. In fact, cannabinoids are not regulated at all, since the federal government still considers marijuana an illegal substance and therefore does not acknowledge that marijuana-based therapies exist at all. So far, 23 states have legislated such medicinal marijuana into legality, which means that legislation, and not scientific criteria, have “approved” these compounds for medical use. The results? “What we saw was that there cant’ be much if any consumer confidence within the cities we purchased and tested products,” says Vandrey.

For the larger medical marijuana distributors who see the emerging market as a profitable business, there’s the concern that profit motives may push them to under-deliver the amount of THC or cannabinoid they note on the label. And for the smaller outfits, it could be a matter of not knowing how to extract and measure the active ingredients from the cannabis plant and distribute it in a consistent way in a batch of tea or baked goods.

How can consumers know what they’re getting in a medical marijuana edible? They can do their homework and talk to other consumers and the dispensary about dosing of THC and cannabinoids, says Vandrey. Or they can try to test the products themselves, which some states offer in an effort to standardize and gain more control over these products. But ultimately, he says. “if states are going to supersede federal law and say we think there is medical benefit in marijuana, and we want it to be available to our residents, then it should also be the responsibility of the states to set up appropriate programs for regulating and overseeing the quality assurance and manufacturing standards for medications being sold.”

It’s buyer-beware for medical marijuana users, since the data supporting the benefits of cannabinoids are still in flux, and most marijuana edibles aren’t well labeled

Time magazine medical marijuana

Marijuana Goes Main Street By: Bruce Barcott

Recently our Founder was making a trip to Florida and she went looking for some reading material in one of the many magazines shops that all airports have. Without question she was drawn to the TIME magazine publication with a gigantic marijuana leaf on the cover. What she was not expecting was to find Primal Therapeutics on page 94! But there she and Primal Therapeutics were, locked in history in TIME magazine.

Primal Therapeutics was to be the world’s first Cannabis Spa however laws and regulations would not support the business model and in 2014 when the recreational cannabis industry was really kicking off our founder had the honor of meeting author, Bruce Barcott at an industry event. That chance encounter landed Jordan in a few sentences in Bruce’s book, Weed The People. Then flash forward three years that same encounter put our founder in TIME magazine’s special edition, Marijuana Goes Main Street.

Needless to say Primal Therapeutics is ecstatic to be a part of history and she had been carrying her copy of TIME in her bag with her which ended up coming in handy. Just when she thought it could not get any better, Jordan was recently in DC to lobby for marijuana policy reform with NORML (National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws) and Bruce Barcott was one of the presenters at the 2017 NORML Conference and Lobby Day. She immediately approached Bruce at the conference and requested that he sign her copy of TIME magazine. He wrote, “Thank you for your pioneering work.” Little did he know that is exactly what Jordan calls all of the students she teaches, “pioneers.”

It is moments and memories like this that solidify our space in this movement. It is these times that push us to keep going and to keep teaching and no matter what to remain on the cutting edge of what will become the greatest industry of all time.

(L to R) Jordan Person (Primal Therapeutics), Bruce Barcott (author), Keith Stroup (founder of NORML)

Welcome to the end of the war on pot. In this TIME magazine special edition you will read about how far the industry has already come.


qualifying conditions for medical cannabis california

CA Marijuana Qualification

Updated on April 23, 2020. Medical content reviewed by Dr. Joseph Rosado, MD, M.B.A, Chief Medical Officer

What Health Issues Qualify For Medical Cannabis in California?

California medical marijuana is available to anyone who has a medical marijuana card. To get a card, your doctor will need to diagnose you with a medical condition and approve the use of medical marijuana for treatment.

These are the conditions that qualify for the California medical marijuana program , according to the law:

  • AIDS
  • Anorexia
  • Arthritis
  • Cachexia ( Wasting Syndrome )
  • Cancer
  • Chronic Pain
  • Glaucoma
  • Migraine
  • Persistent muscle spasms (including spasms associated with multiple sclerosis )
  • Seizures (including epileptic seizures)
  • Severe nausea
  • Any other chronic or persistent medical symptom that affects someone’s ability to conduct major life activities.

California Medical Marijuana Program: Information

  1. Patients must be at least 18 years old. If a patient is under 18, the patient’s parent or legal guardian must approve, unless they are emancipated or declared self-sufficient status.
  2. Patients must provide proof of identity, such as a California driver’s license or some other government-issued identification card.
  3. Patients must be a resident of California and provide proof of residency through either a rental or mortgage agreement, utility bill or California DMV motor vehicle registration.
  4. Patients must be diagnosed with a qualifying medical condition (listed above).
  5. Patients must provide written documentation from a physician that medical marijuana is appropriate for treating a documented medical condition.
  6. Patients must apply in person for a medical marijuana identification card at their county office. Submit the official program application along with your doctor’s recommendation. You may also use a version written in Spanish .
  7. In person, patients must submit an application and:
    • Pay the application fee, which cannot exceed $100 or $50 for Medi-Cal beneficiaries. The application fee will be waived for indigent patients who participate in the county’s medical services program.
    • Have their photo taken.
  8. The county has 30 days to verify a patient or primary caregiver’s application. Once the county has verified an application county staffers have five days to provide a patient with his or her medical marijuana card. In total, it can take up to 35 days to receive your card after you apply.

Medical Marijuana Access in California

In order to participate in California’s medical marijuana program, you simply need to follow the steps above. Once approved, your medical marijuana card will be valid for up to one year. You can apply to renew your card.

Keep in mind: you do not need a marijuana prescription from your doctor. Your California doctor simply needs to provide a recommendation for medical marijuana and note your diagnosis in your medical records .

Primary caregivers may also join the California medical marijuana program. Primary caregivers are people who are responsible for taking care of a qualified patient in the form of safety, health or housing. This might be someone who runs a home health agency, a licensed clinic or a hospice facility, for example. Typically, the primary caregiver needs to be at least 18, though certain exceptions apply.

In addition, anyone over the age of 18 can access marijuana by visiting a licensed retail dispensary. You do not need to have a medical marijuana card to purchase marijuana in California.

If you have a California medical marijuana card, you can possess and grow as much cannabis as you need to treat your medical condition, according to California medical marijuana laws.

Learn more about qualifying for medical marijuana in California. Get info on qualifying conditions and find local doctors at Marijuana Doctors.

Medical Marijuana Identification Card Program

In order to purchase medicinal cannabis products from a licensed retailer, patients will need a current, qualifying physician’s recommendation or valid county-issued medical marijuana identification card. Obtaining a medical marijuana identification card is voluntary.

The CDPH Medical Marijuana Identification Card Program website offers information about identification cards, requirements, and a list of frequently asked questions:

Medical Marijuana Identification Card Program In order to purchase medicinal cannabis products from a licensed retailer, patients will need a current, qualifying physician’s recommendation or


cannabis oil wisconsin

CBD Oil in Wisconsin – It’s Not Simply Legal

Cannabidiol, or CBD oil, is increasingly available in stores across the state of Wisconsin.

Under federal law, CBD oil is an industrial hemp product, and it is legal to possess and distribute.

However, because CBD oil contains a detectable quantity of tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, it is still illegal to possess in Wisconsin unless you have a certification from a physician pursuant to Wisconsin statute 961.32(2m)(b).

Possession of CBD oil without a certification could be prosecuted as a misdemeanor criminal offense. Delivery or supplying of CBD oil to individuals who do not have a certification could be prosecuted as a felony offense.

So why is CBD oil being sold all over Wisconsin? Because cannabidiol’s legal status conflicts with Wisconsin’s industrial hemp law. As a result, the Wisconsin Attorney General has advised Wisconsin law enforcement not to enforce the law as written.

Still, because it is illegal in Wisconsin, it is advised that if you use or distribute CBD oil that you have (or your customers have) a clinician’s certification or prescription to avoid possible criminal charges.

Updated November 13, 2018

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Is CBD oil legal In Wisconsin?

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  1. What is CBD?
  2. Why is CBD sometimes illegal?
  3. Wisconsin CBD laws
  4. Where to buy CBD in Wisconsin
  5. How to read CBD labels and packaging

Yes. In Wisconsin, cannabidiol (CBD) has been legal for medical use since 2014, while hemp-derived CBD is available for adults 18 and older. In fact, Wisconsin was historically one of the nation’s largest producers of hemp until it was prohibited federally in 1958.

CBD oil was legalized in Wisconsin for strict medical purposes under a bill dubbed Lydia’s Law in 2014. It was then legalized in 2017 for a more broad list of medical purposes for adults 18 and older, along with a pilot hemp production program. Those two medical CBD laws were limited, labeled as an “investigational drug permit” issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Wisconsin’s new legislation seeks to match the federal definition of hemp as laid out by the 2018 Farm Bill, which defines hemp as cannabis that contains less than 0.3% THC.

What is CBD?

CBD is the second-most-abundant cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant behind THC, which is the compound that creates intoxicating effects. CBD is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid that is widely perceived to offer therapeutic health benefits for several conditions, demonstrating anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and seizure-suppressant properties, while also showcasing potential for pain relief.

A bottle of CBD oil. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps

Image lightbox

Why is CBD sometimes illegal?

Even though hemp strains don’t produce enough THC to cause intoxication, all types of cannabis, including hemp, were considered illegal under the 1970 Federal Controlled Substances Act. The legislation swept all cannabis into Schedule 1, which defined cannabis as a substance with a high potential for abuse, no accepted medical use, and a likelihood for addiction.

The 2018 Farm Bill legalized hemp cultivation and created a pathway to remove some cannabis from Schedule 1 by creating a legal threshold: Hemp is cannabis that contains less than 0.3% THC by weight, and marijuana is cannabis that contains more than 0.3% THC. Hemp-derived CBD was thus descheduled by the bill, but CBD that is derived from the marijuana plant is still considered federally illegal because marijuana is categorized as a Schedule 1 substance.

The 2018 Farm Bill also presented the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the authority to regulate CBD’s labeling, therapeutic claims, and its use as a food additive. Despite the passage of the Farm Bill, the FDA has taken the stance that even hemp-derived CBD may not be added to food and beverages, nor marketed as dietary supplements. While the FDA has begun a process of reevaluating its stance on such CBD products, it has yet to revise its rules or specifically regulate CBD products. The FDA has been strict when it comes to health claims and content that could be construed as medical advice about CBD.

Federal law still highly regulates the production and sale of hemp, and its cannabinoids, including CBD. The Farm Bill also provides that states may also regulate and even prohibit CBD cultivation and commerce. In addition, states may attempt to regulate CBD food, beverage, dietary supplement, and cosmetic products, independently of the FDA finalizing its views on such products.

Wisconsin CBD laws

CBD oil was legalized for medical use in Wisconsin in 2014. The legislation, known as Lydia’s Law but formally called the Wisconsin Act 267, legalized CBD oil but with very strict medical regulations. It was permitted primarily for those with seizure conditions.

In 2017, CBD oil was legalized in Wisconsin when SB 10 was signed into law by Republican Gov. Scott Walker. Introduced in the Senate and it passed with overwhelming bipartisan support in the state Senate by a vote of 31-1. The bill legalized possession of CBD oil in the state with a doctor’s recommendation.

Wisconsin’s SB 10 had the foresight to require the state government to follow federal law if and when CBD oil was rescheduled at the national level. In March 2017, the Wisconsin Assembly passed Assembly Bill 49, which is the partner bill of SB 10, unanimously with a vote of 98-0, loosening restrictions surrounding CBD.

A bill currently moving through the legislature would clarify and match Wisconsin’s laws up with the 2018 Farm Bill, from a hemp production standpoint, defining the terms and THC percentage as lower than 0.3%. This bill, called Senate Bill 188 and its partner agricultural bill, Assembly Bill 206, both attempt to make a number of changes to Wisconsin’s current law relating to industrial hemp. They are both in progress as of Sep. 26, 2019.

It’s important to note that the FDA hasn’t provided a definitive answer as to how or when it will revise its rules to make CBD or CBD oil legal to add to food or dietary supplements.

The only form of CBD so far that has been approved by the FDA is Epidiolex, a seizure medication manufactured by G.W. Pharmaceuticals.

Growing hemp in Wisconsin

In 2017, Wisconsin passed a pilot hemp program in order to study the growth, cultivation, and marketing of industrial hemp. Called SB 199, the industrial hemp research program was limited to hemp below 1% THC in content, but this could be amended to meet the lower federal limit of 0.3% THC.

In order to produce industrial hemp plants for CBD oil in Wisconsin, a license is mandatory. The state has a hemp production application process by which farmers need to re-apply for annually. There are both grower and processor licenses which allow people to cultivate, store, handle, and convert industrial hemp into a marketable form.

Both are lifetime licenses that they need only get once and then re-register annually. If applicants are processing only hemp that they grow, they need only the grower license. The registration is through the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP). Here are the license fees for hemp:

  • Grower license (one-time fee) : ​$150 (0-30 acres), $5/acre (31-199 acres), ​$1,000 (200 acres or more)
  • Processor license: ​No fee
  • License modification: $50, plus fee for additional acreage as listed above
  • ​Grower registration annual fee: ​$350
  • Processor registration annual fee: $100
  • Sampling/testing: $250 per sample and test; each field and hemp variety needs at least one sample/test

CBD Labeling requirements, testing requirements, are being determined by the DATCP and are included in pending legislation.

Wisconsin CBD possession limits

There is no current possession limit for adults 18 and older with a medical CBD recommendation in Wisconsin. According to a Wisconsin Statute 961.32(2m) (b), you can possess CBD without any THC if you have medical certification to treat a qualifying condition.

CBD oil usually comes with a dropper to allow consumers and patients to measure out their dose. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps

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Where to buy CBD in Wisconsin

You need to be at least 18 years old to purchase hemp-derived CBD in Wisconsin. There are many popular stores that sell CBD and hemp-based products throughout the state.

There is also the option to purchase online and have the CBD shipped to residents within Wisconsin. The U.S. Postal Service said it is legal to mail CBD if it meets the federal requirements of containing less than 0.3% THC. Weedmaps offers an extensive listing of reputable CBD brands and how to find them in your area.

How to read CBD labels and packaging

When looking for what CBD product to purchase, you need to take into account a few important ingredient list numbers and know what they mean when you see them.

The first thing you want to focus on is potency in milligrams. In addition, you will be able to find out, in general, the following information on most company’s packaging for CBD product labels:

  • Amount of active CBD per serving.
  • Supplement Fact panel.
  • Suggested use.
  • Full spectrum, broad spectrum, or isolate.
  • Batch or date code.
  • Net weight.
  • Manufacturer or distributor name.

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cbd meditation

5 Things you should know about CBD and meditation

Some of the achiest people in the world are the ones interested in trying meditation, whether they’re athletes, yoga instructors or people who work long and stressful hours. Logically, experts in the practice of meditation have said that cannabis is the perfect companion for the practice because it helps people access a calm state of mind with more ease.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound known for its healing effects, especially when it comes to physical aches, inflammation and anxiety. Meditation is known for reducing stress and giving people the necessary tools to cope with their problems in healthier ways. Here are 5 things you should know when it comes to CBD and meditation:

Many users report positive and relaxed moods after consuming CBD, something that can help a lot when it comes to meditation.

Can CBD Give Your Meditation a Boost?

The cannabis product has been popping up in many yoga and meditation classes. But is the trending stress reliever worth all the hype?

At a trendy meditation studio in Manhattan, a seemingly distracted desk attendant pointed me to three vials of CBD oil and a jar of tiny spoons. I took one eyedropper full and headed to a colorful room to lie down and listen to a guided meditation that told me to imagine myself floating above the Earth, looking down from my spaceship. And I thought, why do I need a spaceship to imagine myself in space? I soon realized this was not a good fit for me.

The plan had been to look into the growing trend of CBD oil use in meditation. Online testimonials said that the stress-relieving qualities of CBD and meditation could work in concert to melt away the anxieties of the modern world. But I wasn’t seeing it.

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is one of more than 60 cannabinoid compounds found in a marijuana plant, which includes the substance most commonly associated with the “stoned” effect, THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). CBD is legal, to varying degrees, in 46 states. New York legalized it in 2014, in part due to the efforts of Gov. Andrew Cuomo, who argued at the time that it would be a mistake to outlaw the substance that had been shown to be one of the few ways of treating cases of medication-resistant childhood epilepsy. (He also viewed the hemp industry as a way to bring new jobs to the economically hard-hit Southern Tier region.)

Since then, multiple studies have found that CBD offers many of the benefits long touted by proponents of legal marijuana without the psychotropic effects. In other words, it doesn’t get you high . Even better, researchers have found few side effects associated with CBD use. Among its purported benefits, CBD studies have found promising results for its anti-anxiety and anti-inflammatory qualities .

That’s why many meditation and yoga studios in New York have turned to CBD as a way of catering to their stressed out and aching clientele. With classes offering CBD oil springing up across the city, I was left wondering why my experience at the trendy Manhattan one was so lackluster.

According to Yoga Haven founder Betsy Kase, the reason was that I was going about it all wrong.

Kase sells CBD oil at her Westchester studios and takes it herself, and yet she told me she “doesn’t understand” why yoga and meditation studios offer doses before class.

“I’m sort of blown away that yoga studios are doing it,” she said.

Besides the fact that it takes around 15 minutes to feel the effects of CBD and ingesting it right before a 40-minute class is inefficient, Kase said that CBD oil should not be used to enhance an experience but should be part of a holistic self-care routine.

“We could all sit in the lobby and get high before we meditate,” she said. “But why are we doing that? What is that about? They’re making a novelty out of it.”

Instead, Kase argues that CBD can treat symptoms such as pain or anxiety that for some people can be a barrier to establishing a meditation practice. Adding CBD to her own yoga and meditation practice, Kase said, has helped her reduce the anxiety that she has been addressing with prescription pharmaceuticals for years.

“I’m 54 years old, and I’ve been trying to meditate since I was 13,” she said. “I’ve tried all different kinds of meditation, and I could not sit. It’s like I’m jumping out of my skin. If somebody feels like they’re jumping out of their skin continually, is it that they’re not trying hard enough? I don’t believe that. We should give somebody a little help. It’s like how in yoga, we have props that we didn’t have 30 years ago. If sitting in meditation without back support causes back pain, should that be the only way everybody should sit? No! Give them a chair or a block. These are all aids to help us do the practice.”

Kase says that students, friends, colleagues, and family have had positive results with CBD oil, including her father, who suffers from an autoimmune disease and has been using CBD to treat severe inflammation, which has allowed him to take a lower dose of steroids.

But Kase acknowledges that her CBD suggestions should not be confused with medical advice. Much like with her yoga instruction, she says that she is only sharing what has worked for her in the hopes that it will help others. “I don’t say, ‘I recommend and advise that you take ten drops, three times a day,’” she explained. “I say, ‘This is the particular brand that I use. You could try it and see if it helps.’ And people have told me that it does.”

So perhaps CBD and mediation can work well together. But does it align with Buddhist teachings and practice? The debate around the Buddhist view of drugs has a long history, and recently, a Tricycle article took a new look at the issue of using psychedelics to work with the mind. While some Buddhists encouraged the behavior within a safe environment, others argued that drug use violated the fifth precept against intoxicants or denounced it as a shortcut to a certain experience that was unrelated to the Buddhist path.

When it comes to the experience-oriented approach to CBD oil, the psychedelics arguments seem to apply. But with the treatment approach, the comparison between CBD and psychedelics is less clear. For practitioners suffering from extreme anxiety or pain, CBD would not be a shortcut to meditation, but a way of getting them onto the cushion at all. And since CBD is not psychoactive, it is more akin to caffeine or pain medicine than a mind-altering substance like LSD. If caffeine were a violation of the fifth precept, then Zen master Joshu would be in big trouble for his constant instruction to “ go drink tea .”

Zen teacher Brad Warner, an outspoken critic of psychedelics use , agreed that CBD was a different issue. In an email to Tricycle , Warner explained that he had once tried taking CBD oil to treat “frequent and severe headaches,” but, “it had very little effect on me as far as relaxation. Chamomile tea is far more potent to me. Chamomile tea practically knocks me out, by the way. Maybe I’m strange.

“Buddhism in Asia has a long history of tea drinking to help people stay awake,” he continued. “And I wouldn’t begrudge anyone taking something that eases bodily aches while sitting—although I think you shouldn’t do too much of that stuff because you can end up becoming dependent on it. If the pain is really bad, though, I’d take pain relievers. I have, in fact, done that myself.”

However, Warner warned against using CBD to enhance a meditation experience. “To me, one of the great benefits of meditation is how it can enable a person to discover their own innate ability to not react to stress in a habitual way,” he explained. “That skill takes time and effort to develop. But it’s very rewarding because it’s something you can call upon any time, any place, regardless of whether there’s a source of CBD (or Chamomile tea) nearby. CBD-enhanced meditation would never allow you to find that innate ability. By adding CBD to the meditation, you’re taking away one of the greatest and most useful aspects of meditation.”

With Kase’s advice and Warner’s warning in mind, I wanted to try meditation with CBD again to see if I could catch a glimpse of what all the fuss was about. So why didn’t the CBD meditation class work for me? One possible reason was that I did not ingest the proper dose of CBD or give it enough time to take effect. Another reason was the meditation itself: the audio-guided visualization practice was nothing like the quiet breath-counting Zen meditation I am accustomed to. I decided to try again on my own terms.

I picked up a bottle of CBD oil at the place nearest to my apartment that sold it—a shop called Vape Kingz, which despite its ostentatious name had a delightfully helpful salesman. He explained the differences in price, taste, and concentration between brands, and I opted for the cheapest one—30ml of tincture that contained 500mg CBD oil.

The clerk told me that I should take one dropper of oil a day for a standard dose. He was half right. The approximately 15mg dose was standard, but since I weigh around 125 lbs, it would be above average for me. This sort of well-intended misinformation is an issue for many similar “alternative” treatments. St. John’s wort, Ginseng, and other often potent herbal remedies can be taken in excess or adversely combined with other medications because they’re not regulated as well as pharmaceuticals .

It is no surprise that CBD suffers from the same drawbacks, considering the legal grey area it occupies. Betsy Kase unwittingly waded into that territory when she started selling the oil at Yoga Haven. After she started listing the product on her website in September 2018, the credit card processing company that she had been using for the past six years dropped her as a client, and PayPal froze her account.

“Even though I took it right off my website, they wouldn’t take me back on,” Kase said. Even though CBD is legal in New York, she explained that it is considered “a risky product, in the same category as marijuana.” After a few months of searching, Kase eventually found a new credit card processing company, but, she said, “It already had a huge impact on the functioning of my business.”

These barriers are part of the reason why I purchased my bottle at Vape Kingz instead of a pharmacy and was instructed to take a large dose by a well-meaning man in an oversized T-shirt.

The 15mg dose made me fall asleep within the hour. Higher quantities of CBD tend to have that effect, and many people use it for that purpose . Once again, I failed to see how it would help me meditate. So I adjusted the dose, starting with a low amount and slowly dialing it in over time. When I felt I had hit a good middle ground, I tried taking it before meditating again.

The effect was subtle. I noticed that I was able to work my way into the meditation a little more easily and access states of tranquility a little more readily. But, as a Zen teacher once told me, the practice of meditation is not the calm state of mind but the continuous exercise of returning to the practice itself. From that perspective, there’s nothing to be gained from making meditation easier—unless it is so difficult for someone that they cannot even begin, which is not the case for me. So I did not find it to be a panacea for stress relief or a meditation enhancer.

The experience is likely different for each person, but unfortunately, for now, anecdotal evidence is all we have when it comes to learning about meditating with CBD. There has been virtually no research published on effects of CBD and meditation, according to Jennifer Whitney, a psychology PhD candidate at the New School, in New York City, who specializes in meditation research and who also teaches meditation in the mixed Vipassana and Zen tradition of the late Buddhist psychotherapist Michael Stone . She said that the recent interest in CBD is “too new” for researchers to have completed the peer-review process.

“I am sure all the people are researching it now,” Whitney said, “but the process of doing research and getting an article published generally takes around two years.” It will take even longer before we have definitive studies on the long-term effects of CBD use, she added.

As a researcher, Whitney does not think the evidence is strong enough yet to fully support the claims of CBD’s benefits, but in her capacity as a meditation teacher, she said students and colleagues have reported similar anecdotes about CBD’s ability to reduce anxiety.

“With CBD, they’re finding a certain level of anxiety and stress reduction that other things hadn’t afforded them or a similar effect but without the side effects,” she said. “My concern is about the potential reliance on the CBD doing the job for you rather than actually doing the meditative work. So maybe it could be like a boost that you could eventually let go of, instead of doing CBD plus meditation for the rest of your life.”

But Whitney said that few people report that anxiety has prevented them from developing a meditation practice. “It’s more that they don’t have the time,” she said. “That’s one of the biggest things that keeps people from finishing any of the intervention studies.”

In the end, CBD has not become a regular part of my meditation practice (though I have continued to use it as a sleep aid). I find that sitting with anxious thoughts can be helpful, and the anxiety does not feel overwhelming for me like it does for some. But self-care regimens are different for everyone. I remember one woman emerging from the same trendy guided meditation with a big smile on her face, letting out deep breaths of relief. If she found a program that works for her, then I don’t see any more harm in it than somebody drinking Chamomile every night. All I can say is that it’s not my cup of tea.

The cannabis product has been popping up in many yoga and meditation classes. But is the trending stress reliever worth all the hype?