This is the second consecutive month that these indexes have indicated decelerating prices. Supplemental questions, which spotlight different topics each month, focused on capital spending plans. On balance, firms indicated that they are spending more this year than in 2010 on computer and other capital equipment, but are investing less in structures. In addition, the median firm plans to spend about 14 percent less overall on capital this year than last. The survey also asks respondents to gauge expected activity over the next six months.
These forward-looking indicators suggest that activity is expected to improve in the months ahead, but the level of optimism has fallen markedly from the first half of the year. However, it remains to be seen whether the manufacturing sector is facing a temporary lull, or encountering significant and persistent headwinds. It will be particularly important to monitor other July manufacturing data over the next couple of weeks, including regional manufacturing surveys from the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia, Dallas, Kansas City, and Richmond, as well as the ISM’s national manufacturing survey. Disclaimer The views expressed in this post are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the position of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or the Federal Reserve System. Any errors or omissions are the responsibility of the author(s). Transdermal Patches: How to Choose the Right Materials.
Entering into the transdermal medication market is no easy task. It’s a market segment heavy in regulations, tight on tolerances, and requires precision equipment. While the profit margins can be substantial, it will require a major investment in resources and talent. If you’re a converter looking to enter the transdermal medication market, one of the most important considerations is choosing the right transdermal patch materials. We sat down with 3M’s Material Support Representative Charlene Schubert to provide insight on this selection process. A transdermal patch is used to deliver medication through the skin. An adhesive patch containing medication is placed onto the skin, and a specified dose is then absorbed through the skin and into the bloodstream. For patients and caregivers, it’s a non-invasive, painless way to administer medication that provides a constant therapeutic dosage for a limited period of time. Before we delve into how to choose the right materials for a transdermal patch, let’s break down its key components and design. 3M has produced the following video with the breakdown, which we’ve transcribed below. Backing – The outermost layer of the patch, which protects the formulation during the wear period. Drug – The drug contained within the membrane or in the adhesive. Membrane – The film that controls the rate of drug diffusion out of the patch, to the skin. Adhesive – The skin contacting layer that adheres the patch to the skin. Overlaminate Tape – The external protective covering or functional layer which can be directly integrated into the patch design. Release Liner – Protects the skin-contacting adhesive during storage and is removed prior to application of the patch. The transdermal patch design is dictated by the properties of the drug. If you’re working with an active ingredient, you’ve likely already characterized it. These are typically the main areas considered: Molecular weight: The size of the drug molecule – only small molecules can penetrate the skin – typically less than 500 Daltons. Lipophilicity : The lipophilicity of the drug will determine how readily the drug is absorbed into the body’s oils. Dosage form: In what form will the drug be administered? Salt: The drug’s salt form also determines how quickly it can be absorbed into the skin.
Length of time worn: The dosage will depend on the duration of time the patch will be worn. Administering 3 mg versus 10 mg is a big difference. You have to be reasonable as to how much drug you can get into the patch, and how long it can realistically be worn. Melting point of the active ingredient: Not only must the active ingredient in the drug be suitable to skin, but it can’t be at a level where it prohibits the actual manufacture of the patch itself. Transdermal patches are typically designed in four ways. The properties of the drug, the dosage level, and the time required to administer the drug typically influence which of these designs you choose: 1. Matrix – Blends an active ingredient directly into the patch.
This is the most common method, which is frequently known as the drug-in adhesive, or DIA.