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A failed kidney can be replaced with a functional kidney through kidney transplant surgery. The donor kidney can come from a live person or a deceased person. Many patients’ best chance of a timely transplant is to find a friend or family member who is willing to donate one of two healthy kidneys from their own body.

Some of the materials the kidneys cleans from the blood are particles of solid minerals. These minerals can crystallize and form solid masses or “stones” in the kidneys. Most patients are able to pass these stones out of the body through urination, but the process of passing a kidney stone can be very painful. Still, most cases of kidney stones are fairly benign. In rare circumstances, serious complications can arise and require surgery. Certain drugs, infections, and congenital conditions can cause the glomeruli (tiny blood vessels where the cleansing takes place) to become inflamed. Symptoms can include retention of fluid, foamy urine, or discolored urine (brown or pink). High blood pressure often accompanies glomerulonephritis.

Glomerulonephritis usually resolves itself with time. Glomeruli are contained in a larger structure called the “nephron,” the functional unit of the kidney. A capsule of blood vessels is connected to the kidney structure by a tube called a renal tubule . Interstitial nephritis is an inflammation of the renal tubule, often caused by drug allergies. Some autoimmune disorders, as well as potassium deficiency, excess of calcium, or certain infections, can cause the condition as well. Symptoms of interstitial nephritis can include fluid retention, rash, swelling, weight gain, bloating, high blood pressure, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, fever, and bloody urine. Any medication causing interstitial nephritis should be discontinued. The condition can be treated by anti-inflammatories. Residual effects may require a change in diet to reverse, including a reduction in protein or salt intake. A bacterial infection may cause the entire kidney to become inflamed. This can cause permanent damage to the kidney and even threaten the life of the patient. Symptoms of pyelonephritis (kidney inflammation) can include fever above 102°F (38.9°C), burning or painful urination, cloudy urine, bloody urine, pus in the urine, urine that smells of fish, torso or groin pain, or urinary incontinence. Other symptoms could include chills, tremors, nausea and vomiting, sweat, delirium, and general illness. Pyelonephritis can usually be treated with antibiotics. Patients may need to be hospitalized for severe inflammation and in extreme cases may require surgery. Vesicoureteral reflux is a condition whereby urine flows in the wrong direction—back up the urethra into the bladder, sometimes back flowing into the kidneys. This can damage the kidneys or cause urinary tract infections (see above). Symptoms of vesicoureteral reflux include: Urinary tract infection. Severe cases of vesicoureteral reflux may require surgery or the injection of “deflux” gel into the bladder, which blocks the backflow of urine and directs it to its proper course out of the body. Antibiotics may be needed to treat the opportunistic urinary tract infections that follow the reflux. The kidneys frequently form cysts , or sacs of fluid, on their surface. These benign growths have no adverse effects and usually subside without yielding symptoms. A genetic condition, however, may cause the kidney to grow frequent cysts all over the surface of the kidney. This is called polycystic kidney disease and can lead to kidney failure if the cysts impede the function of the kidneys.

If both kidneys fail due to polycystic kidney disease, the patient may require dialysis or a transplant. The urinary tract may become infected by a variety of harmful bacteria species. Infections of the bladder and the urethra rarely spread to the kidneys and can be treated easily with antibiotics and no long-term adverse effects. If the infection spreads to the kidneys, however, it may lead to more serious effects, including kidney failure if left untreated. While more tests are needed, CBD has proven itself to be a fairly benign substance. No evidence has indicated CBD as dangerous to patients with kidney disease or harmful to the kidneys. CBD is excreted through the fecal route, with minimal kidney interaction. However, CBD and kidney disease medications may interact in adverse ways and harm the liver. Before beginning a regimen of CBD to alleviate symptoms of kidney disease, consult with your doctor about any possible adverse interactions with your prescribed kidney disease medications. CBD shows no signs of being dangerous to people of different ages, races, or other demographics.

But the lack of specific evidence may inspire pregnant mothers to be cautious with CBD, as they should be with other substances.

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