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What is Kratom?

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical evergreen tree from Southeast Asia and is native to Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Kratom, the original name used in Thailand, is a member of the Rubiaceae family. Other members of the Rubiaceae family include coffee and gardenia. The leaves of kratom are consumed either by chewing, or by drying and smoking, putting into capsules, tablets or extract, or by boiling into a tea. The effects are unique in that stimulation occurs at low doses and opioid-like depressant and euphoric effects occur at higher doses. Common uses include treatment of pain, to help prevent withdrawal from opiates (such as for example doctor prescribed narcotics or heroin), and for mild stimulation.

Traditionally, kratom leaves have been used by Thai and Malaysian natives and workers for centuries. The stimulant effect was used by workers in Southeast Asia to increase energy, stamina, and limit fatigue. Nevertheless, some Southeast Parts of asia right now outlaw its use.

Kratom Effects and Actions

Most of the psychoactive effects of kratom have arisen from anecdotal and clinical cases. Kratom has the unusual effect of causing stimulatory effects at lower doses and more side effects that depress the central nervous system at higher doses. The stimulatory effects are manifested in increased alertness, increased physical energy, talkativeness, and more social behavior. At higher doses, opioid and depressant effects on the central nervous system predominate, but the effects can be variable and unpredictable.

Kratom users anecdotally report reduced anxiety and stress, reduced fatigue, pain relief, increased concentration, relief from withdrawal symptoms, and more. In addition to pain, other anecdotal uses include anti-inflammatory, antipyretic (to reduce fever), antitussive (cough suppressant), antihypertensive (to lower blood pressure), as a local anesthetic, to lower blood sugar, and as an antidiarrheal facilities. It has also been assisted to boost sexual function. None of the uses have been clinically studied or shown to be safe or effective.

Kratom Side Effects and Health Hazards

Expected opioid-like side effects that may occur with kratom include:

  • Sedation
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Dry mouth
  • Increased urination
  • Loss of appetite
  • Itching
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion

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    Kratom legality

    Currently in the vast majority of the surrounding world, Kratom can be freely purchased, but this can change dramatically at any time. The recent rise in popularity of Kratom has unexpectedly met with serious antagonism from various often government agencies, and several local authorities have ordered its sale and maximum use. This immediately sparked the interest of biomedical researchers around the outside world. Dr. Boyer, in particular a medical toxicologist in the Department of Toxicology, became seriously interested in scientific research after it was revealed that more than 40 dispossessed millions of real Americans obey unquestioningly from Kratom, which immediately caused a surge of desire for Kratom powder. While the free sale of kratom is legal in the vast majority of democracies, it isn’t permitted in any way in southern Australia, Burma, Denmark, Germany, Israel, Lithuania, Malaysia, Myanmar, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Korea, and Thailand. So far as the United States is concerned, it is legal in most states except:

  • Alabama – Illegal, legislature can be found here.
  • Arkansas – Illegal, legislature can be found here.
  • Indiana – Illegal, legislature can be found here.
  • Vermont – Illegal, legislature can be found here.
  • Wisconsin – Illegal, legislature can be found here.
  • Rhode Island – Illegal. Counties that prohibit sale of Kratom:
  • Jerseyville – IL
  • San Diego – CA
  • Sarasota County – FL

    Sources

  • Kratom May Cause Liver Damage: Study. Drugs.com. Accessed February 26, 2020 at https://www.drugs.com/news/kratom-may-cause-liver-damage-study-86356.html
  • HHS recommended that the DEA make kratom a Schedule I drug, like LSD or heroin. STATNews. Accessed February 26, 2020 at https://www.statnews.com/2018/11/09/hhs-recommended-dea-ban-kratom-documents-show/
  • Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on the agency’s scientific evidence on the presence of opioid compounds in kratom, underscoring its potential for abuse. U.S. Food and Administration (FDA). Feb. 6, 2018. Accessed February 26, 2020 at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/statement-fda-commissioner-scott-gottlieb-md-agencys-scientific-evidence-presence-opioid-compounds
  • Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D. on FDA advisory about deadly risks associated with kratom. U.S. Food and Administration (FDA). Nov. 14, 2017. Accessed February 26, 2020 at https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/statement-fda-commissioner-scott-gottlieb-md-fda-advisory-about-deadly-risks-associated-kratom
  • Herbal Drug Kratom Contains Opioids, FDA Says. Drugs.com. Feb. 7, 2018. Accessed February 26, 2020 at https://www.drugs.com/news/herbal-kratom-contains-opioids-fda-says-68620.html
  • FDA News release. January 2016. US Marshals seize dietary supplements containing Kratom. Accessed October 6, 2016.
  • Gianutsos G. The DEA Changes Its Mind on Kratom. US Pharm. 2017;41(3):7-9. Accessed Feb. 8, 2018 at https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/the-dea-changes-its-mind-on-kratom
  • Rosenbaum et al. Here Today, Gone Tomorrow…and Back Again? A Review of Herbal Marijuana Alternatives (K2, Spice), Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts), Kratom, Salvia divinorum, Methoxetamine, and Piperazines. J Med Toxicol. 2012; 8(1):15–32.
  • Kronstrad, et al. Unintentional fatal intoxications with mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol from the herbal blend Krypton. J Anal Toxicol. 2011; 35:242-7.
  • DEA. Micrograms Bulletin. March 2006. Accessed October 6, 2016.
  • Kapp FG, Maurer HH, Auwärter V, Winkelmann M, Hermanns-Clausen M. Intrahepatic cholestasis following abuse of powdered kratom (Mitragyna speciosa). J Med Toxicol 2011; 7: 227-31.
  • DEA. Kratom. Drug Facts Sheet. p. 29. Accessed February 26, 2020.
  • Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of Mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymitragynine Into Schedule I. Federal Register. Proposed Rule by the DEA, 8/31/2016. Accessed February 26, 2020.
  • Drugs of Abuse. A DEA Resource Guide. 2015 Edition. Drugs of Concern. Kratom. p 84. Accessed October 6, 2016.
  • Kratom seized in California by US Marshals Service. FDA news Release. August 4, 2016. Accessed January 10, 2017.
  • Ingraham, C. Drug policy experts and advocates implore DEA to keep opiate-like plant legal. The Washington Post. Dec 2, 2017. Accessed February 26, 2020.
  • American Kratom Association. The Facts About Kratom. Accessed January 10, 2017.
  • Henningfield, J. Factors Related to the Relative Abuse Potential of Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) and Mitragynine in the form of VivaZen. Written Summary of Oral Testimony for the State of Wisconsin Controlled Substances Board.
    August 14, 2015. Accessed January 10, 2017.
  • Analysis Shows No Basis For DEA To Restrict Herb Kratom. American Kratom Association. December 1, 2016. Accessed January 10, 2017.
  • PBS News Hour. Harven M. Herbal drug kratom faces uncertain legal future, despite public outpouring. December 12, 2016. Accessed January 10, 2017 at https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/whats-next-kratom

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